On The Way To Super Elements (Scientists To School Children) – Flerov, Ilyinov

In this post, we will see the book On The Way To Super Elements (Scientists To School Children) by G. N. Flerov and A. S. Ilyinov. This book is a part of the series Scientists To School Children.

Flerov-Ilyinov-On-the-Way-To-Super-Elements-Scientists-to-School-Children-Mir-1986.jpg

About the book
The book explores the ideas regarding creation and discovery of heavy elements which are not found naturally called as the super elements. The various physical ideas that are discussed include periodic laws for elements, stability of nuclei, processes of nuclear decay, transuranium elements, ions and various processes which are involved in the creation.

About the authors

 G. N. Flerov, now a full member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, was born in 1913, graduated from the Leningrad Polytechnic Institute. He began his research work while still a student, in the laboratory headed by I. V. Kur­chatov, the head of the Soviet atomic programme in the 1940-50s. The last two decades G. N. Flerov has been Director of the Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna near Moscow. At this institute the research group he is leading has carried out a number of fundamental investigations into the physics of heavy ions and has discovered six new elements of the periodic table. Together with K.A. Peterzhak, a Soviet experimental physicist, Flerov discovered the spontaneous fission of nuclei in 1940. He received various awards and honors from the Soviet Government for his great scientific achievements, specifically, he holds the Lenin and State Prizes of the USSR.
A. S. Ilyinov, Dr Sc. (Physics) is a theoretical physicist at the Institute of Nuclear Research of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Born in 1944, he graduated from the physics department of the Polytechnic Institute, Tomsk, in 1968. His current research interests concern nuclear reactions. He is the author of about 70 technical publications and a co-author of the discovery of elements 106 and 107.
The book was translated from the Russian by M. Edeleev. and was first published by Mir in 1985.
There is an interesting visualisation in the book regarding the “stability” of atomic nuclei.
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Contents
Enigmas of the Periodic Law 6
The Stability Continent 11
Neutron Synthesis 20
Transuranium Elements 27
Heavy Ions 33
Kurchatovium 43
What is the Superelement? 53
A Shallow at the Stability Island 59
The Ion Beam 83
The Search for Long Livers 95
Continents to be Discovered 129
Appendix. Additional Facts for Those Eager to Know More 133
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The World Of The Amphibians (Scientists To School Children) – Sergeev

In this post, we will see the book The World Of The Amphibians (Scientists To School Children) by B. F. Sergeev. This is a series of books in which some of the leading scientists in their field write popular expositions for school students.

 

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About the author and the book

B. F. Sergeev,
Doctor of Biological Sciences, is a specialist in the area of evolu­tionary and ecological physiology, he studies the development of living organisms on Earth, from the most primitive forms to man, and how contemporary animals adapted to the most diverse conditions of ex­istence. Many amazing creatures have been studied in his laboratory: sea anemones and planaria, lancelets and
bats, crabs, lampreys, lizards, dolphins and chimpanzees.

He is particularly interested in amphibians, the first vertebrates to adapt to life on land. This book discusses what interesting creatures they are, and what remarkable adjustments they had to develop in adaptation to the environment.

The book also discusses some critically endangered amphibian species across the world.

The book was translated from the Russian by M. Rosenberg and was published by Mir in 1986.

Note: This was one of the very first Mir books that I had purchased from a used book market almost 23 years ago (c. 1996). At that time the book was already wetted, and both the back and the front cover faded (as you can see in the cover above).

The Internet Archive Link

Contents

An Ode to the Green Toad 6

The Pioneers of Continents 9

Conservatives 12

The Frog Princess 32

Information Service 75

Family Troubles 101

Childhood 132

Limbless Miners 146

The Red Pages 152

Always Vigilant 178

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The Structure of Matter – Karapetyants, Drakin

In this post, we will see the book The Structure of Matter by M. Karapetyants and S. Drakin.

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About the book

Treated in this book arc present-day ideas on the structure of atoms, molecules and crystals, as well as the nature of che­mical bonds. It is supposed that the reader is acquainted with chemistry within the scope of the secondary-school course and that he has some notion of differential and integral calculus.

The study of this book can precede the learning of a higher- school course in chemistry; it will be conducive in widening the student’s knowledge of inorganic chemistry as well as in study­ ing more deeply organic and analytical chemistry.

The book is designed for students in chemical engineering, polytechnical and other institutes of learning in which inorganic and organic chemistry are studied. It can be found useful for engineers, technicians and scientific workers whose industrial or research work is associated with chemical technology, metal­lurgy, biochemistry, or geochemistry.

The book was translated from the Russian by Y. Nadler and G. Kittell and was first published by Mir in 1974 and the second print in 1978.

The Internet Archive Link

Contents

PREFACE 13

PART I ATOMIC STRUCTURE 15
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 15

1.1. Atoms 15
1.2. The Avogadro Number 16
1.3. Mass and Size of Atoms 19
1.4. The Constituents of an Atom: Electrons and the Nucleus 21

CHAPTER TWO ATOMIC SPECTRA 23

2.1. Principle of Operation of Spectrographs; Kinds of Spectra 23
2.2. The Atomic Spectrum of Hydrogen 24
2.3. The Spectra of Other Elements 25
2.4. The Concept of Light Quantum 26
2.5. History of the Development of the Concepts of Atomic Structure 29

CHAPTER THREE THE WAVE PROPERTIES OF MATERIAL PARTICLES 32

3.1. Dual Nature of Light 32
3.2. The Law of Interdependence of Mass and Energy 34
3.3. Compton Effect 35
3.4. De Broglie Waves 37
3.5. Quantum Mechanics; the Schrodinger Equation 39

CHAPTER FOUR QUANTUM-MECHANICAL EXPLANATION OF ATOMIC STRUCTURE 43

4.1. Solution of the Schrodinger Equation for the One-Dimensional Square-Well Model 43
4.2. Three-Dimensional Square-Well Model 47
4.3. Quantum-Mechanical Explanation of Structure of Hydrogen Atom 50
4.4. Quantum Numbers of Electrons in Atoms 54
4.5. Many-Electron Atoms 58
4.6. Origination of Spectra 61
4.7. Energy Characteristics of Atoms: Ionization Energy and Electron Affinity 64

PART II MENDELEEV’S PERIODIC LAW AND THE STRUCTURE OF ATOMS OF ELEMENTS 68

CHAPTER FIVE INTRODUCTION 68
5.1. The Modern Formulation of the Periodic Law 68
5.2. The Structure of the Periodic System 73
5.3. Predicting the Properties of Substances with the Aid of the Periodic Law 78

CHAPTER SIX THE PERIODIC SYSTEM OF THE ELEMENTS AND THEIR ATOMIC STRUCTURE 80

6.1. Filling of Electron Shells and Subshells 80
6.2. Variation of Ionization Energies 89
6.3. Secondary Periodicity 91

CHAPTER SEVEN ELEMENTARY PRINCIPLES OF FORMS AND PROPERTIES OF CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS 93

7.1. Oxidation State 93
7.2. Atomic and Ionic Radii 95
7.3. Coordination Number 101
7.4. Compounds Containing R-H and R-O- Bonds 102
7.5. Acids
7.6. Dependence of the Strength of Acids and Bases on the Charge and Radius of the Ion of the Element Forming Them 104

CHAPTER EIGHT ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF ELEMENTS AND THEIR COMPOUNDS 106

8.1. First Group 106
8.2. Second Group 107
8.3. Third Group 108
8.4. Fourth Group 110
8.5. Fifth Group 111
8.6. Sixth Group 112
8.7. Seventh Group 112
8.8. Eighth Group 114
8.9. Zero Group 115
8.10. Some Conclusions 116

CHAPTER NINE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PERIODIC LAW 117

PART III THE STRUCTURE OF MOLECULES AND THE CHEMICAL BOND 119

CHAPTER TEN INTRODUCTION 119

10.1. Molecules
10.2. Development of Conceptions of the Chemical Bond and Valence 120
10.3. A. Butlerov’s Theory of Chemical Structure 122
10.4. Structural Isomerism 124
10.5. Spatial Isomerism 126

CHAPTER ELEVEN BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CHEMICAL BOND-LENGTH

11.1. Length of Bonds 132
11.2. Valence Angles 133
11.3. Strength of the Bond 137

CHAPTER TWELVE PHYSICAL METHODS OF DETERMINING MOLECULAR STRUCTURE 141

12.1. Electron-Diffraction Examination 142
12.2. Molecular Spectra 149

CHAPTER THIRTEEN BASIC TYPES OF THE CHEMICAL BOND-IONICAND COVALENT BOND 153

13.1. Electronegativity of the Elements 153
13.2. Ionic and Covalent Bond 155
13.3. The Dipole Moment and Molecular Structure 157
13.4. Effective Charges 162

CHAPTER FOURTEEN QUANTUM-MECHANICAL EXPLANATION OF THE COVALENT BOND 163

14.1. Solution of the Schrodinger Equation Using Approximate Functions 164
14.2. Potential Energy Curves for Molecules 170
14.3. Results of Quantum-Mechanical Treatment of the Hydrogen Molecule by Heitler and London 172
14.4. Valence of the Elements on the Basis of the Heitler and London Theory 178
14.5. Explanation of the Orientation of Valence 183
14.6. Single
14.7. The Donor-Acceptor Bond 200
14.8. The Bond in Electron-Deficient Molecules 205
14.9. Molecular Orbital Method 207
14.10. Molecular Orbitals in Diatomic Molecules 210
14.11. Hiickel Method 215

CHAPTER FIFTEEN THE IONIC BOND 225

15.1. Energy of the Ionic Bond 225
15.2. Ionic Polarization 229
15.3. Effect of Polarization on Properties of Substances 233
15.4. The Polar Bond and Electronegativity 235

CHAPTER SIXTEEN THE CHEMICAL BOND IN COMPLEX COMPOUNDS 237

16.1. Complex Compounds 237
16.2 Isomerism of Complex Compounds 239
16.3. Explanation of the Chemical Bond in Complexes on the Basis of Electrostatic Conceptions 241
16.4. Quantum-Mechanical Interpretation of the Chemical Bond in Complex Compounds 242
16.5. Valence Bond Method 243
16.6. Crystal Field Theory 246
16.7. Molecular Orbitals in Complex Compounds 251

CHAPTER SEVENTEEN THE HYDROGEN BOND 258

PART IV THE STRUCTURE OF MATTER IN THE CONDENSED STATE 264

CHAPTER EIGHTEEN INTRODUCTION 264
18.1. Aggregate States 264
18.2. Molecular Interaction 267

CHAPTER NINETEEN THE CRYSTALLINE STATE 271
19.1. Characteristics of the Crystalline State 271
19.2. Study of Crystal Structure 277
19.3. Types of Crystal Lattices 281
19.4. Some Crystal Structures 283
19.5. Energetics of Ionic Crystals 291

CHAPTER TWENTY LIQUID AND AMORPHOUS STATES 297
20.1. Structure of Liquids 297
20.2. The Structure of Water 300
20.3. Solutions of Electrolytes 301
20.4. The Amorphous State 307

APPENDICES 310
I. Determination of the ratio e/m for an electron. 310
II. Characteristics of wave motion. Interference and diffraction of waves. 311
III. Construction of the Schrodinger equation. 315
IV. Polarization of light. 315
V. Derivation of relationship describing electron diffraction by molecules. 317
VI. Moment of inertia. 321
VII. Expressions for wave functions of hybrid orbitals. 323
VIII. Electron spin and magnetic properties of matter. 324
IX. Calculation of the absorption spectra of polymethylene dyes. 325
X. Solution of homogeneous sets of linear equations. 327

VALUES OF UNITS OF MEASURE AND PHYSICAL CONSTANTS USED IN THE BOOK IN THE

SI SYSTEM OF UNITS 329

NAME INDEX 330

SUBJECT INDEX 332

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Elementary Textbook on Physics Vol 3 – Landsberg

In this post, we will see Elementary Textbook on Physics – Volume 3 – Oscillations And Waves Optics Atomic And Nuclear Physics edited by G. S. Landsberg.

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About the book:

Volume 3 covers aspects of wave motion, oscillations, optics and atomic and modern physics. These topics include:

Basic Concepts. Mechanical Vibrations. Acoustic Vibrations. Electric Oscillations. Wave Phenomena. Interference of Waves. Electromagnetic Waves. Light Phenomena: General. Photometry and Lighting Engineering. Basic Laws of Geometrical Optics. Application of Reflection and Refraction of Light to Image Formation. Optical Systems and Errors. Optical Instruments. Interference of Light. Diffraction of Light. Physical Principles of Optical Holography. Polarization of Light. Transverse Nature of Lightwaves. Electromagnetic Spectrum. Velocity of Light. Dispersion of Light and Colours of Bodies. Spectra and Spectral Regularities. Effects of Light. Atomic Structure. Radioactivity. Atomic Nuclei and Nuclear Power. Elementary Particles. New Achievements in Elementary Particle Physics.

About the series (from Front Jacket and Preface):

Elementary Textbook on Physics first appeared in 1948-52 under the editorship of Academician G.S. Landsberg (1890-1957) and immediately became popular with students preparing for entrance examinations in physics. The success of the book was due very much to the fact that each section was written by a specialist. Contributors to the book included the scientists S.E. Khaikin, M.A. Isakovich, M.A. Leontovich, D.I. Sakharov (Vol. 1), S.G. Kalashnikov (Vol. 2), S.M. Rytov, M.M. Sushchinskii (with the participation of I.A. Yakovlev), F.S. Landsberg-Baryshanskaya, and F.L. Shapiro (Vol. 3).

These three volumes form a course on elementary physics that has become very popular in the Soviet Union. Each sectioh was written by an authority in the appropriate field, while the overall unity and editing was supervised by Academician G.S. Landsberg (1890-1957). This textbook has gone through ten Russian editions and a great deal of effort went into the last edition to introduce SI units and change the terminology and notation for the physical units.

A feature of this course is the relatively small number of formulas and mathematical manipulations. Instead, attention was focussed on explaining physical phenomena in such a way as to combine scientific rigour and a form understandable to school children. Another aspect of the text is the technological application of the physical laws.

These features make the text a world-class textbook.

For students preparing to enter universities and colleges to study physics, and for those it high schools specialising in physics.

The book was translated from the Russian by Natalia Wadhwa and was first published by Mir in 1989.

 

The Internet Archive Link Vol 1

The Internet Archive Link Vol 2

The Internet Archive Link Vol 3

Contents Vol 3

Front Cover 1
Front Jacket 2
Title Page 8
Contents 10
Preface to the First Russian Edition 16
Part One Oscillations and Waves 18
Chapter 1 Mechanical Vibrations Basic Concepts. 18
1.1. Periodic Motion. Period 18
1.2. Oscillatory Systems. Free Oscillations 18
1.3. Pendulum Kinematics of Oscillations 20
1.4. Vibrations of a Timing Fork 21
1.5. Harmonic Oscillations. Frequency 23
1.6. Phase Shift 26
1.7. Dynamics of Pendulum Oscillations 28
1.8. Formula for the Period of a Simple Pendulum 30
1.9. Elastic Vibrations 32
1.10. Torsional Vibrations 34
1.11. Effect of Friction. Damping 35
1.12. Forced Vibrations 38
1.13. Resonance 39
1.14. Effect of Friction on Resonance Phenomena 41
1.15. Examples of Resonance Phenomena 42
1.16. Resonance Phenomena Induced by an Anharmonic Periodic Force 44
1.17. The Relation Between the Form and Harmonic Composition of Periodic Oscillations 47
Chapter 2 Acoustic Vibrations 51
2.1. Acoustic Vibrations 51
2.2. Subject of Acoustics 52
2.3. Musical Tone. Laudness and Pitch 53
2.4. Tembre 54
2.5. Acoustic Resonance 56
2.6. Recording and Reproduction of Sounds 58
2.7. Analysis and Synthesis of Sound 59
2.8. Noises 60
Chapter 3 Electric Oscillations 63
3.1. Electric Oscillations and Methods of Their Observation 63
3.2. Oscillatory Circuit 66
3.3. Mechanical Analogy. Thomson Formula 69
3.4. Electric Resonance 72
3.5. Undamped Oscillations. Self-Excited Oscillatory Systems 75
3.6. Valve Oscillator 78
3.7. Theory of Oscillations 80
Chapter 4 Wave Phenomena 84
4.1. Waves 84
4.2. Wave Propagation Velocity 86
4.3. Radiolocation
4.4. Transverse Waves in a Cord 90
4.5. Longitudinal Waves in an Air Column 93
4.6. Waves on the Surface of a Liquid 96
4.7. Energy Transfer by Waves 98
4.8. Reflection of Waves 101
4.9. Diffraction 103
4.10. Directional Emission 105
Chapter 5 Interference of Waves 108
5.1. Superposition of Waves 108
5.2. Interference of Waves 109
5.3. Conditions for Formation of Interference Maxima and Minima 111
5.4. Interference of Acoustic Waves 113
5.5. Standing Waves 114
5.6. Vibrations of Elastic Bodies as Standing Waves 116
5.7. Free Vibrations of a String 117
5.8. Standing Waves in Plates and Other Extended Bodies 120
5.9. Resonance in the Presence of Many Frequencies 122
5.10. Conditions for a Perfect Sound Emission 124
5.11. Binaural Phase Effect. Sound Direction Finding 126
Chapter 6 Electromagnetic Waves 128
6.1. Electromagnetic Waves 128
6.2. Conditions for a Perfect Emission of Electromagnetic Waves 129
6.3. Oscillator and Aerials 130
6.4. Hertz’ Experiments on Electromagnetic Waves. Lebedev’s Experiments 134
6.5. Electromagnetic Theory of Light. Scale of Electromagnetic Waves 137
6.6. Experiments with Electromagnetic Waves 139
6.7. Popov’s Invention of Radio 146
6.8. Modern Radio Communication 149
6.9. Other Applications of Radio 152
6.10. Propagation of Radio Waves 154
6.11. Concluding Remarks 158
Part Two Geometrical Optics 162
Chapter 7 Light Phenomena: General 162
7.1. Effects of Light 162
7.2. Interference of Light. Colours of Thin Films 164
7.3. Brief Information from the History of Optics 165
Chapter 8 Photometry and Lighting Engineering 167
8.1. Radiant Energy. Luminous Flux 167
8.2. Point Sources of Light 168
8.3. Luminous Intensity and Illuminance 170
8.4. Laws of Illumination 171
8.5. Units of Photometric Quantities 173
8.6. Brightness of Sources 174
8.7. Problems of Lighting Engineering 176
8.8. Appliances for Concentrating Luminous Flux 177
8.9. Reflectors and Scatterers 178
8.10. Brightness of Illuminated Surfaces. 181
8.11. Photometry and Measuring Instruments 182
Chapter 9 Basic Laws of Geometrical Optics 187
9.1. Rectilinearity of Wave Propagation 187
9.2. Rectilinear Propagation of Light. Light Rays 188
9.3. Laws of Reflection and Refraction of Light 193
9.4. Reversibility of Light Rays 197
9.5. Refractive Index 199
9.6. Total Internal Reflection 202
9.7. Refraction in a Plane-parallel Plate 205
9.8. Refraction in a Prism 206
Chapter 10 Application of Reflection and Refraction of Light for Image Formation 209
10.1. Light Source and Its Image 209
10.2. Refraction in a Lens. Focal Points 210
10.3. Images of Points Located on the Principal Optical Axis of a Lens. Lens Equation 215
10.4. Applications of the Thin Lens Equation. Real and Virtual Images 217
10.5. Image of a Point Source and of an Extended Object Formed by a Plane Mirror. Image of a Point Source Formed by a Spherical Mirror 221
10.6. Focal Point and Focal Length of a Spherical Mirror 224
10.7. Relation Between the Positions of a Source and Its Image on the Principal Optical Axis of a Spherical Mirror 225
10.8. Methods of Preparation of Lenses and Mirrors 226
10.9. Images of Extended Objects Formed by Spherical Mirrors and Lenses 227
10.10. Magnification of Images Formed by Spherical Mirrors and Lenses 228
10.11. Image Formation by Spherical Mirrors and Lenses 230
10.12. Optical Power of Lenses 235
Chapter 11 Optical Systems and Errors 237
11.1. Optical System 237
11.2. Principal Planes and Principal Points of a System 237
11.3. Image Construction in a System 239
11.4. Magnification of a System 239
11.5. Drawbacks of Optical Systems 240
11.6. Spherical Aberration 241
11.7. Astigmatism 244
11.8. Chromatic Aberration 245
11.9. Confinement of Beam Cross Sectionsin Optical Systems 246
11.10. Lens Aperture 247
11.11. Brightness of Image 248
Chapter 12 Optical Instruments 251
12.1. Projection Optical Instruments 251
12.2. Photographic Camera 253
12.3. The Human Eye as an Optical System 255
12.4. Optical Instruments Outfitting the Eye 257
12.5. Magnifying Glasses 259
12.6. Microscopes 261
12.7. Resolving Power of Microscopes 263
12.8. Telescopes 263
12.9. Magnification of Telescopes 265
12.10. Telescopes in Astronomy 266
12.11. Image Brightness for Extended and Point Sources 270
12.12. Lomonosov’s Telescope 272
12.13. Binocular Vision and Sensation of Depth. Stereoscopes 272
Part Three Physical Optics 277
Chapter 13 Interference of Light 277
13.1. Geometrical and Physical Optics 277
13.2. Experimental Realization of Interference of Light 277
13.3. Explanation of Thin Film Colours 281
13.4. Newton’s Rings 282
13.5. Calculation of Wavelength of Light with the Help of Newton’s Rings 284
Chapter 14 Diffraction of Light 287
14.1. Bundles of Rays and the Shape of Wave Surface 287
14.2. Huygens’ Principle 288
14.3. Reflection and Refraction from the Viewpoint of Huygens’ Principle 289
14.4. Huygens’ Principle in Fresnel Interpretation 291
14.5. Simple Diffraction Phenomena 292
14.6. Explanation of Diffraction by Fresnel’s Method 295
14.7. Resolving .Power of Optical Instruments 296
14.8. Diffraction Grating 299
14.9. Diffraction Grating as a Spectral Instrument 301
14.10. Preparation of Diffraction Gratings 302
14.11. Diffraction at an Oblique Incidence of Light on a Grating 302
Chapter 15 Physical Principles of Optical Holography 304
15.1. Photography and Holography 304
15.2. Holographic Recording with a Plane Reference Wave 307
15.3. Obtaining Optical Images by Reconstructing the Wave Front 310
15.4. Holographing by Opposing Light Beam Method 313
15.5. Application of Holography to Optical Interferometry 315
Chapter 16 Polarization of Light. TransverseNature of Light Waves 320
16.1. Passage of Light Through Tourmaline 320
16.2. Hypotheses Explaining Observed Phenomena. Polarized Light 321
16.3. Mechanical Model of Polarization 322
16.4. Polaroids 323
16.5. Thinsverse Nature of Light Waves and Electromagnetic Theory of Light 323
Chapter 17 Electromagnetic Spectrum 325
17.1. Methods of Investigating Electromagnetic Waves of Different Wavelengths 325
17.2. Infrared and Ultraviolet Radiation 326
17.3. Discovery of X-rays 327
17.4. Effects of X-rays 329
17.5. X-ray Ihbe 330
17.6. Origination and Nature of X-rays 331
17.7. Scale of Electromagnetic Waves 332
Chapter 18 Speed of Light 334
18.1. First Attempts to Determine the Speed of Light 334
18.2. Determination of the Speed of Light by Roemer 335
18.3. Measurement of the Speed of Lightby Rotating-Mirror Method 336
Chapter 19 Dispersion of Light and Colours ofBodies 339
19.1. State-of-the-art in Chromatography Before Newton’s Studies 339
19.2. Main Discovery of Newton in Optics 339
19.3. Interpretation of Newton’s Observations 341
19.4. Dispersion of Refractive Indicesfor Different Materials 342
19.5. Complementary Colours 343
19.6. Spectral Composition of Light Emitted by Various Sources 345
19.7. Light and Colours of Bodies 346
19.8. Absorption
19.10. Coloured Bodies Illuminated by Coloured Light 348
19.11. Masking and Unmasking 349
19.12. Colour Saturation 350
19.13. Colour of the Sky and Dawns 351
Chapter 20 Spectra and Spectral Regularities 354
20.1. Spectroscopic Instrumentation 354
20.2. types of Emission Spectra 355
20.3. Origin of Different Types of Spectra 357
20.4. Spectral Laws 358
20.5. Spectral Analysis Using Emission Spectra 359
20.6. Absorption Spectra of Liquids and Solids 362
20.7. Absorption Spectra of Atoms. Fraunhofer Lines 362
20.8. Investigation of Red-Hot Bodies. Blackbody 363
20.9. Temperature Dependence of Emission of Red-Hot Bodies. Incandescent Lamps 365
20.10. Optical Pyrometry 366
Chapter 21 Effects of Light 368
21.1. Action of Light on a Substance. Photoelectric Effect 368
21.2. Laws of Photoelectric Effect 369
21.3. Light Quanta 372
21.4. Application of Photoelectric Phenomena 374
21.5. Photoluminescence. Stokes’ Shift 376
21.6. Physical Meaning of Stokes’ Shift 378
21.7. Luminescent Analysis 378
21.8. Photochemical Action of Light 379
21.9. The Role of Wavelength in Photochemical Processes 380
21.10. Photography 380
21.11. Photochemical Theory of Vision 384
21.12. Duration of Visual Sensation 386
Part Four Atomic and Nuclear Physics 393
Chapter 22 Atomic Structure 393
22.1. Atoms 393
22.2. Avogadro’s Constant. Size and Mass of Atoms 394
22.3. Elementary Electric Charge 396
22.4. Units of Charge
22.5. Measurement of Mass of Charged Particles. Mass Spectrograph 400
22.6. Electron Mass. Velocity Dependence of Electron Mass 403
22.7. Einstein’s Law 405
22.8. Mass of Atoms. Isotopes 408
22.9. Isotope Separation. Heavy Water 410
22.10. Nuclear Model of Atom 412
22.11. Energy Levels of Atoms 415
22.12. Induced Emission of Light. Quantum Generators 420
22.13. Hydrogen Atom. Peculiarities of Motion of an Electron in an Atom 424
22.14. Many-Electron Atoms. Origin of Optical and X-Ray Spectra of Atoms 428
22.15. Mendeleev’s Periodic System of Elements 429
22.16. Quantum and Wave Properties of Photons 432
22.17. Fundamentals of Quantum (Wave) Mechanics 438
Chapter 23 Radioactivity 446
23.1. Discovery of Radioactivity. Radioactive Elements 446
23.2. Alpha-, Beta- and Gamma- Radiation. Wilson Cloud Chamber
23.3. Methods of Detecting Charged Particles 453
23.4. Properties of Radioactive Radiation 456
23.5. Radioactive Decay and Radioactive Thinsformations 460
23.6. Applications of Radioactivity 464
23.7. Accelerators 464
Chapter 24 Atomic Nuclei and Nuclear Power 470
24.1. Nuclear Reactions 470
24.2. Nuclear Reactions and Transformation of Elements 472
243. Properties of Neutrons 473
24.4. Nuclear Reactions Induced by Neutrons 475
24.5. Artificial Radioactivity 477
24.6. Positron 479
24.7. Application of Einstein’s Law to Annihilation and Pair Formation 481
24.8. The Structure of Atomic Nuclei 482
24.9. Nuclear Energy. Energy Sources of Stars 485
24.10. Uranium Fission. Chain Nuclear Reaction 488
24.11. Application of Nondecaying Chain Fission Reaction. Atom and Hydrogen Bombs 493
24.12. Nuclear Reactors and Their Applications 495
Chapter 25 Elementary Particles 503
25.1. General Remarks 503
25.2. Neutrino 505
25.3. Nuclear Forces. Mesons 507
25.4. Particles and Antiparticles 511
25.5. Particles and Interactions 516
25.6. Detectors of Elementary Particles 518
25.7. Clock Paradox 523
25.8. Cosmic Radiation (Cosmic Rays) 524
Chapter 26 New Achievements in Elementary-Particle Physics 528
26.1. Accelerators and Experimental Technology 528
26.2. Hadrons and Quarks 533
26.3. Quark Structure of Hadrons 542
26.4. Quark Model and Formation and Decay of Hadrons 543
26.5. Leptons. Intermediate Bosons. The Unity of All Interactions 547
Answers and Solutions 551
Part I Oscillations and Waves 551
Part II Geometrical Optics 553
Part III Physical Optics 556
Part IV Atomic and Nuclear Physics 557
Conclusion 562
Index 565
Back Jacket 577
Back Cover 578

 

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Elementary Textbook on Physics Vol 2 – Landsberg

In this post, we will see Elementary Textbook on Physics – Volume 2 – Electricity And Magnetism edited by G. S. Landsberg.

Landsberg-2-fc copy.jpg

About the book:

Volume 2 covers aspects of basic aspects of electricity and magnetism. These topics include:

Electric Charges. Electric Field. Direct Current. Thermal Effect of Current. Electric Current in Electrolytes. Chemical and Thermal Generators. Electric Current in Metals. Electric Current in Gases. Electric Current in Semiconductors. Basic Magnetic Phenomena. Magnetic Field. Magnetic Field of Current. Magnetic Field of the Earth. Forces Acting on Current- Carrying Conductors in Magnetic Field. Electromagnetic Induction. Magnetic Properties of Bodies. Alternating Current. Electric Machines: Generators, Motors and Electromagnets.

 

About the series (from Front Jacket and Preface):

Elementary Textbook on Physics first appeared in 1948-52 under the editorship of Academician G.S. Landsberg (1890-1957) and immediately became popular with students preparing for entrance examinations in physics. The success of the book was due very much to the fact that each section was written by a specialist. Contributors to the book included the scientists S.E. Khaikin, M.A. Isakovich, M.A. Leontovich, D.I. Sakharov (Vol. 1), S.G. Kalashnikov (Vol. 2), S.M. Rytov, M.M. Sushchinskii (with the participation of I.A. Yakovlev), F.S. Landsberg-Baryshanskaya, and F.L. Shapiro (Vol. 3).

These three volumes form a course on elementary physics that has become very popular in the Soviet Union. Each sectioh was written by an authority in the appropriate field, while the overall unity and editing was supervised by Academician G.S. Landsberg (1890-1957). This textbook has gone through ten Russian editions and a great deal of effort went into the last edition to introduce SI units and change the terminology and notation for the physical units.

A feature of this course is the relatively small number of formulas and mathematical manipulations. Instead, attention was focussed on explaining physical phenomena in such a way as to combine scientific rigour and a form understandable to school children. Another aspect of the text is the technological application of the physical laws.

These features make the text a world-class textbook.

For students preparing to enter universities and colleges to study physics, and for those it high schools specialising in physics.

The book was translated from the Russian by Natalia Wadhwa and was first published by Mir in 1988.

 

The Internet Archive Link Vol 1

The Internet Archive Link Vol 2

The Internet Archive Link Vol 3

Contents Vol 2

Front Cover 1
Front Jacket 2
Title Page 8
Contents 10
From the Preface to the First Russian Edition 15
Chapter 1 Electric Charges 16
1.1. Electric Interaction 16
1.2. Conductors and Insulators 18
1.3. Division of Bodies into Conductors and Insulators 20
1.4. Positive and Negative Charges 22
1.5. What Happens During Electrostatic Charging? 24
1.6. Electron Theory 26
1.7. Electrostatic Charging by Friction 27
1.8. Charging by Induction 30
1.10. Coulomb’s Law 34
1.11. Unit of Charge 36
Chapter 2 Electric Field 39
2.1. Effect of Electric Charge on Surrounding Bodies 39
2.2. The Idea of Electric Field 40
2.3. Electric Field Strength 42
2.4. Composition of Fields 44
2.5. Electric Field in Insulators and Conductors 45
2.6. Graphic Representation of Fields 46
2.7. Main Features of Electric Field-Strength Patterns 50
2.8. Application of the Method of Field Lines to Problems in Electrostatics 50
2.9. Work Done in Displacing an Electric Charge in an Electric Field 53
2.10. Potential Difference (Electric Voltage) 56
2.11. Equipotential Surfaces 58
2.12. Why Was the Potential Difference Introduced? 60
2.13. Conditions for Charge Equilibrium in Conductors 62
2.14. Electrometer 63
2.15. What Is the Difference Between an Electrometer and an Electroscope? 66
2.16. Earthing 67
2.17. Measurement of the Potential Difference in Air. Electric Probe 68
2.18. Electric Field of the Earth 70
2.19. Simple Electric Field Configurations 71
2.20. Charge Distribution in a Conductor. Faraday’s Cage 73
2.21. Surface Charge Density 77
2.22. Capacitors 78
2.23. Types of Capacitors 82
2.24. Parallel and Series Connection of Capacitors 85
2.25. Dielectric Permittivity 86
2.26. Why Is Electric Field Weakened in a Dielectric? Polarization of Dielectrics 90
2.27. Energy of Charged Bodies. Energy of Electric Field 92
Chapter 3 Direct Current 95
3.1. Electric Current and Electromotive Force 95
3.2. Manifestations of Electric Current 100
3.3. Direction of Current 103
3.4. Strength of Current 104
3.5. “Velocity of Electric Current” and Velocity of Charge Carriers 105
3.6. Galvanometer 106
3.7. Voltage Distribution in a Current-Carrying Conductor 107
3.8. Ohm’s Law 109
3.9 Resistance of Wires 111
3.10. Temperature Dependence of Resistance 114
3.11. Superconductivity 116
3.12. Series and Parallel Connection of Wires 118
3.13. Rheostats 121
3.14. Voltage Distribution in a Circuit. “Losses” in Wires 122
3.15. Voltmeter 124
3.16. What Must Be the Resistances of a Voltmeter and an Ammeter? 125
3.17. Shunting of Measuring Instruments 126
Chapter 4 Thermal Effect of Current 128
4.1. Heating by Current. Joule’s Law 128
4.2. Work Done by Electric Current 129
4.3. Power of a Current 130
4.4. Resistance Welding 132
4.5. Electric Heating Appliances. Electric Furnaces 132
4.6. Design of Heating Appliances 134
4.7. Incandescent Lamps 135
4.8. Short-Circuiting. Fuses 137
4.9. Electric Wiring 139
Chapter 5 Electric Current in Electrolytes 141
5.1. Faraday’s First Law of Electrolysis 141
5.2. Faraday’s Second Law of Electrolysis 143
5.3. Ionic Conduction in Electrolytes 145
5.4. Motion o f Ions in Electrolytes 147
5.5. Elementary Electric Charge 148
5.6. Primary and Secondary Processes in Electrolysis 149
5.7. Electrolytic Dissociation 151
5.8. Graduating Ammeters with the Help of Electrolysis 152
5.9. Technical Applications of Electrolysis 153
Chapter 6 Chemical and Thermal Generators 157
6.1. Introduction. Volta’s Discovery 157
6.2. Volta’s Rule. Galvanic Cell 158
6.3. Emergence of EMF and Current in a Galvanic Cell 161
6.4. Polarization of Electrodes 166
6.5. Depolarization in Galvanic Cells 168
6.6. Accumulators 169
6.7. Ohm’s Law for Closed Circuits 172
6.8. Voltage Across the Terminals of a Current Source and EMF 174
6.9. Connection of Current Sources 177
6.10. Thermocouples 181
6.11. Thermocouples as Generators 183
6.12. Measurement of Temperature with the Help of Thermocouples 184
Chapter 7 Electric Current in Metals 188
7.1. Electron Conduction in Metals 188
7.2. Structure of Metals 191
7.3. Reasons Behind Electric Resistance 192
7.4. Work Function 193
7.5. Emission of Electrons by Incandescent Bodies 194
Chapter 8 Electric Current in Gases 197
8.1. Intrinsic and Induced Conduction in Gases 197
8.2. Induced Conduction in a Gas 197
8.3. Spark Discharge 201
8.4. Lightning 204
8.5. Corona Discharge 205
8.6. Applications of Corona Discharge 206
8.7. Lightning Conductor 208
8.8. Electric Arc 209
8.9. Applications of Arc Discharge 212
8.10. Glow Discharge 213
8.11. What Occurs During a Glow Discharge? 214
8.12. Cathode Rays 215
8.13. Nature of Cathode Rays 217
8.14. Canal (Positive) Rays 222
8.15. Electron Conduction in a High Vacuum 223
8.16. Electron Tubes 224
8.17. Cathode-Ray Tube 228
Chapter 9 Electric Current in Semiconductors 231
9.1. Nature of Electric Current in Semiconductors 231
9.2. Motion of Electrons in Semiconductors
9.3. Semiconductor Rectifiers 238
9.4. Semiconductor Photocells 243
Chapter 10 Basic Magnetic Phenomena 244
10.1. Natural and Artificial Magnets 244
10.2. Poles of a Magnet and Its Neutral Zone 246
10.3. Magnetic Effect of Electric Current 249
10.4. Magnetic Effects of Currents and Permanent Magnets 251
10.5. Origin of the Magnetic Field of Permanent Magnets. Coulomb’s Experiment 257
10.6. Ampere’s Hypothesis on Elementary Currents 260
Chapter 11 Magnetic Field 262
11.1. Magnetic Field and Its Manifestations. Magnetic Induction 262
11.2. Magnetic Moment. Unit of Magnetic Induction 264
11.3. Measurement of Magnetic Induction with the Help of Magnetic Needle 265
11.4. Composition of Magnetic Fields 266
11.5. Magnetic Field Lines 267
11.6. Instruments for Measuring Magnetic Induction 269
Chapter 12 Magnetic Field of Current 271
12.1.Magnetic Field of a Straight Conductor and of a Circular Current Loop. Right-Hand Screw Rule 271
12.2. Magnetic Field of a Solenoid. Equivalence of a Solenoid and a Bar Magnet 274
12.3. Magnetic Field in a Solenoid. Magnetic Field Strength 277
12.4. Magnetic Field of Moving Charges 279
Chapter 13 Magnetic Field of the Earth 281
13.1. Magnetic Field of the Earth 281
13.2. Dements of the Earth’s Magnetism 283
13.3. Magnetic Anomalies and Magnetometric Prospecting of Mineral Resources 286
13.4. Time Variation of Elements of the Earth’s Magnetic Field. Magnetic Storms 287
Chapter 14 Forces Acting on Current-Carrying Conductors in a Magnetic Field 288
14.1. Introduction 288
14.2. Effect of a Magnetic Field on a Straight Current-Carrying Conductor. Left-Hand Rule 288
14.3. Effect of a Magnetic Field on a Current Loop or on a Solenoid 293
14.4. Galvanometer Based on Interaction of Magnetic Field and Current 298
14.5. Lorentz Force 300
14.6. Lorentz Force and Aurora Borealis 304
Chapter 15 Electromagnetic Induction 307
15.1. Conditions for Emergence of Induced Current 307
15.2. Direction of Induced Current. Lenz’s Law 313
15.3. Basic Law of Electromagnetic Induction 317
15.4. Induced EMF 319
15.5. Electromagnetic Induction and Lorentz Force 322
15.6. Induced Currents in Bulky Conductors. Foucault Currents 323
Chapter 16 Magnetic Properties of Bodies 327
16.1. Magnetic Permeability of Iron 327
16.2. Permeability of Different Materials. Paramagnetics and Diamagnetics 331
16.3. Motion of Paramagnetics and Diamagnetics in a Magnetic Field. Faraday’s Experiments 333
16.4. Molecular Theory of Magnetism 335
16.5. Magnetic Protection 336
16.6. Properties of Ferromagnetics 338
16.7. Fundamentals of the Theory of Ferromagnetism 343
Chapter 17 Alternating Current 346
17.1. Constant and Alternating Electromotive Force 346
17.2. Experimental Investigation of the Form of an Alternating Current. Oscillograph 350
17.3. Amplitude
17.4. Strength of Alternating Current 356
17.5. A.C. Ammeters and Voltmeters 357
17.6. Self-Induction 358
17.7. Inductance of a Coil 361
17.8. Alternating Current Through a Capacitor and a Large- Inductance Coil 362
17.9. Ohm’s Law for Alternating Current. Capacitive and Inductive Reactances 365
17.10. Summation of Currents for Parallel Connection of Elements in an A. C. Circuit 367
17.11. Summation of Voltages in Series Connection of Elements of an A.C. Circuit 371
7.12. Phase Shift Between Current and Voltage 372
17.13. Power of Alternating Current 377
17.14. Transformers 378
17.15. Centralized Production and Distribution of Electric Power 384
17.16. Rectification of Alternating Current 386
Chapter 18 Electric Machines: Generators
18.1. A.C. Generators 391
18.3. Separately Excited and Self-Excited Generators 403
18.4. Three-Phase Current 407
18.5. Three-Phase Electric Motor 412
18.6. D.C. Motors 420
18.7. Basic Operating Characteristics and Features of D.C. Motors with Shunt and Series Excitation 423
18.8. Efficiency of Generators and Motors 429
18.9. Reversibility of D. C. Generators 429
18.10. Electromagnets 431
18.11. Application of Electromagnets 433
18.12. Relays and Their Application in Engineering and Automatic Control 435
18.2. D.C. Generators 395
Answers and Solutions 437
Appendices 447
1. Fundamental Physical Constants 447
2. Factors and Prefixes Used with the SI Units 447
Index 448
Back Jacket 457
Back Cover 458
Electricity And Magnetism

 

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Elementary Textbook on Physics Vol 1 – Landsberg

In this post, we will see Elementary Textbook on Physics – Volume 1 – Mechanics, Heat and Molecular Physics edited by G. S. Landsberg.

Landsberg-1-fc copy.jpg

About the book:

Volume 1 covers aspects of basic mechanics and fluid mechanics (both statics and dynamics), heat and molecular physics. These topics include:

Kinematics. Dynamics. Statics. Work and Energy. Curvilinear Motion. Motion in Noninertial Reference Systems and inertial Forces. Hydrostatics. Aerostatics. Fluid Dynamics. Thermal Expansion of Solids and Liquids. Work. Heat. Law of Energy Conservation. Molecular Theory. Properties of Gases. Properties of Liquids. Properties of Solids. Transition from Solid to Liquid State. Elasticity and Strength. Properties of Vapours. Physics of the Atmosphere. Heat Engines.

 

About the series (from Front Jacket and Preface):

Elementary Textbook on Physics first appeared in 1948-52 under the editorship of Academician G.S. Landsberg (1890-1957) and immediately became popular with students preparing for entrance examinations in physics. The success of the book was due very much to the fact that each section was written by a specialist. Contributors to the book included the scientists S.E. Khaikin, M.A. Isakovich, M.A. Leontovich, D.I. Sakharov (Vol. 1), S.G. Kalashnikov (Vol. 2), S.M. Rytov, M.M. Sushchinskii (with the participation of I.A. Yakovlev), F.S. Landsberg-Baryshanskaya, and F.L. Shapiro (Vol. 3).

These three volumes form a course on elementary physics that has become very popular in the Soviet Union. Each sectioh was written by an authority in the appropriate field, while the overall unity and editing was supervised by Academician G.S. Landsberg (1890-1957). This textbook has gone through ten Russian editions and a great deal of effort went into the last edition to introduce SI units and change the terminology and notation for the physical units.

A feature of this course is the relatively small number of formulas and mathematical manipulations. Instead, attention was focussed on explaining physical phenomena in such a way as to combine scientific rigour and a form understandable to school children. Another aspect of the text is the technological application of the physical laws.

These features make the text a world-class textbook.

For students preparing to enter universities and colleges to study physics, and for those it high schools specialising in physics.

The book was translated from the Russian by Natalia Wadhwa and was first published by Mir in 1988.

 

The Internet Archive Link Vol 1

The Internet Archive Link Vol 2

The Internet Archive Link Vol 3

Contents Vol 1

Front Cover 1
Front Jacket 2
Title Page 7
Contents 9
From the Preface to the First Russian Edition 15
From the Publishers of the Tenth Russian Edition 18
Introduction 20
Part One Mechanics 23
Chapter 1 Kinematics 23
1.1. Motion of Bodies 23
1.2. Kinematics. Relative Nature of Motion and State of Rest 25
1.3. Trajectory of Motion 26
1.4. Translatory and Rotary Motion of a Body 28
1.5. Motion of a Point 29
1.6. Description of Motion of a Point 30
1.7. Measurement of Length 33
1.8. Measurement of Time Intervals 36
1.9. Uniform Rectilinear Motion and Its Velocity 38
1.10 The Sign of Velocity in Rectilinear Motion 40
1.11. Units of Velocity 40
1.12. Path vs. Time Graph 43
1.13. Velocity vs. Time Graph 47
1.14. Nonuniform Rectilinear Motion. Average Velocity 48
1.15. Instantaneous Velocity 49
1.16. Acceleration in Rectilinear Motion 51
1.17. Velocity of Uniformly Accelerated Motion in a Straight Line 53
1.18. The Sign of Acceleration in Rectilinear Motion 54
1.19. Velocity Graphs for Uniformly Accelerated Motion in a Straight Line 55
1.20. Velocity Graph for an Arbitrary Nonuniform Motion 56
1.21. Calculation of the Path Traversed in Nonuniform Motion with the Help of Velocity Graph 58
1.23. Vectors 60
1.24. Decomposition of a Vector into Components 64
1.25. Curvilinear Motion 67
1.26. Velocity of Curvilinear Motion 67
1.27. Acceleration in Curvilinear Motion 69
1.28. Motion in Different Reference Systems 71
1.29. Kinematics of Motion in Outer Space 73
Chapter 2 Dynamics 76
2.1. Problems of Dynamics 76
2.2. Law of Inertia 76
2.3. Inertial Reference Systems 79
2.4. Galileo’s Relativity Principle 79
2.5. Forces 80
2.6. Balanced Forces. State of Rest and Inertial Motion 82
2.7. Force as a Vector. Standard of Force 83
2.8. Spring Balance 84
2.9. The Point of Application of a Force 87
2.10. Resultant Force 88
2.11. Composition of Forces Acting along a Straight Line 88
2.12. Composition of Forces Acting at an Angle to Each Other 89
2.13. Relation between Force and Acceleration 91
2.14. Mass of a Body 93
2.15. Newton’s Second Law 95
2.16. Units of Force and Mass 98
2.17. Systems of Units 99
2.18. Newton’s Third Law 99
2.19. Applications of Newton’s Third Law 102
2.20. Momentum of a Body 104
2.21. System of Bodies. Law of Momentum Conservation 105
2.22. Application of the Law of Momentum Conservation 107
2.23. Free Fall of Bodies 109
2.24. Free Fall Acceleration 110
2.25. Falling of a Body with Zero Initial Velocity and Motion of a Body Thrown Vertically Upwards 110
2.26. Weight of a Body 112
2.27. Mass and Weight 114
2.28. Density of Substances 115
2.29. Emergence of Deformations 116
2.30. Deformations in Stationary Bodies Caused Only by Contact Forces 117
2.31. Deformations in Stationary Bodies Caused by the Force of Gravity 118
2.32. Deformation of a Body Moving with an Acceleration 119
2.33. Vanishing of Deformations in Free Fail 121
2.34. Destruction of Moving Bodies 123
2.35. Frictional Forces 124
2.36. Rolling Friction 127
2.37. Role of Friction 128
2.38. Resistance of Medium 129
2.39. Falling of Bodies in Air 130
Chapter 3 Statics 133
3.1. Problems of Statics 133
3.2. Perfectly Rigid Body 134
3.3. Translation of the Point of Application of a Force Acting on a Rigid Body 135
3.4. Equilibrium of a Body under the Action of Three Forces 137
3.5. Decomposition of Forces 138
3.6. Projections of Forces. General Conditions of Equilibrium 141
3.7. Constraints. Constraining Forces. A Body with a Fixed Axis 143
3.8. Equilibrium of a Body with a Fixed Axis 145
3.9. Moment of Force 146
3.10. Measurement of Torque 149
3.11. Force Couple 150
3.12. Composition of Parallel Forces. Centre of Gravity 151
3.13. Determination of the Centre of Gravity of a Body 154
3.14. Equilibrium of a Body under the Action of the Force of Gravity 157
3.15. Conditions of Stable Equilibrium under the Action of the Force of Gravity 159
3.16. Simple Machines 162
3.17. Wedge and Screw 168
Chapter 4 Work and Energy 172
4.1. “Golden Rule” of Mechanics 172
4.2. Applications of the “Golden Rule” 173
4.3. Work Done by a Force 174
4.4. Work Done during a Displacement Normal to the Direction of Force 176
4.5. Work Done by a Force Acting at an Arbitrary Angle to Displacement 176
4.6. Positive and Negative Work 177
4.7. Units of Work 178
4.8. Motion over a Horizontal Plane 179
4.9. Work Done by the Force of Gravity in Motion over an Inclined Plane 179
4.10. Principle of Work Conservation 180
4.11. Energy 182
4.12. Potential Energy 183
4.13. Potential Energy of Elastic Deformation 185
4.14. Kinetic Energy 187
4.15. Kinetic Energy in Terms of Mass and Velocity of a Body 187
4.16. Total Energy of a Body 188
4.17. The Law of Energy Conservation 190
4.18. Frictional Forces and the Law of Conservation of Mechanical Energy 193
4.19. Conversion of Mechanical Energy into Internal Energy 194
4.20. General Nature of the Law of Energy Conservation 196
4.21. Power 197
4.22. Calculation of Power of Machines 198
4.23. Power
4.24. Efficiency of Machines 200
Chapter 5 Curvilinear Motion 202
5.1. Emergence of Curvilinear Motion 202
5.2. Acceleration of a Curvilinear Motion 203
5.3. Motion of a Body Thrown along the Horizontal 204
5.4. Motion of a Body Thrown at an Angle to the Horizontal 207
5.5. Flight of Bullets and Projectiles 210
5.6. Angular Velocity 211
5.7. Forces in a Uniform Circular Motion 212
5.8. Emergence of the Force Acting on a Body Moving in a Circle 214
5.9. Rupture of Flywheels 216
5.10. Deformation of a Body Moving in a Circle 217
5.11. Roller Coaster 219
5.12. Banking of Tracks 221
5.13. The Circular Motion of a Suspended Body 222
5.14. Motion of Planets 223
5.15. The Law of Universal Gravitation 227
5.16. Artificial Satellites of the Earth 231
Chapter 6 Motion in Noninertial Reference Systems and Inertial Forces 239
6.1. The Role of a Reference System 239
6.2. Motion Relative to Different Inertial Systems 240
6.3. Motion Relative to an Inertial and a Noninertial Reference System 241
6.4. Noninertial Systems in Translatory Motion 243
6.5. Inertial Forces 243
6.6. Equivalence of Inertial Forces and Gravitational Forces 245
6.7. Weightlessness and Overloads 248
6.8. Is the Earth an Inertial Reference System? 250
6.9. Rotating Reference Systems 251
6.10. Inertial Forces for a Body Moving Relative to a Rotating Reference System 253
6.11. Proof of the Earth’s Rotation 254
6.12. Tides 257
Chapter 7 Hydrostatics 259
7.1. Mobility of Liquids 259
7.2. Force of Pressure 260
7.3. Measurement of Compressibility of a Liquid 262
7.4. “Incompressible” Liquid 263
7.5. Forces of Pressure Are Transmitted in a Liquid in All Directions 263
7.6. Direction of Forces of Pressure 264
7.7. Pressure 264
7.8. Membrane Manometer 265
7.9. Independence of Pressure of the Orientation of an Area Element 266
7.10. Units of Pressure 267
7.11. Determination of Forces of Pressure from Pressure 267
7.12. Distribution of Pressure in a Liquid 268
7.13. Pascal’s Principle 269
7.14. Hydraulic Press 270
7.15. Liquid under the Action of the Force of Gravity 272
7.16. Communicating Vessels 276
7.17. Liquid Column Manometer 278
7.18. Water Supply System. Pressure Pump 279
7.19. Siphon 281
7.20. Force of Pressure on the Bottom of a Vessel 282
7.21. Water Pressure in Sea Depths 285
7.22. The Strength of a Submarine 288
7.23. Archimedes’ Principle 289
7.24. Measurement of Density of Bodies on the Basis of Archimedes’ Principle 293
7.25. Floatation of Bodies 293
7.26. Floatation of Hollow Bodies 296
7.27. Stability of Floating Ships 298
7.28. Rising of Bubbles to the Surface 299
7.29. Bodies Lying on the Bottom of a Vessel 299
Chapter 8 Aerostatics 301
8.1. Mechanical Properties of Gases 301
8.2. Atmosphere 302
8.3. Atmospheric Pressure 303
8.4. Other Experiments Confirming the Existence of the Atmospheric Pressure 305
8.5. Vacuum Pumps 308
8.6. Effect of the Atmospheric Pressure on the Level of Liquid in a Pipe 308
8.7. Maximum Height of a Liquid Column 310
8.8. Torricelli’s Experiment. Mercury Barometer and Aneroid Barometer 312
8.9. Distribution of Atmospheric Pressure over Altitude 315
8.10. Physiological Effect of Lowered Air Pressure 318
8.11. Archimedes’ Principle for Gases 318
8.12. Balloons and Airships 319
8.13. Application of Compressed Air in Engineering 321
Chapter 9 Fluid Dynamics 324
9.1. Pressure in a Fluid Flow 324
9.2. Fluid Flow in Pipes. Fluid Friction 326
9.3. Bernoulli’s Law 329
9.4. Fluid in Noninertial Reference Systems 331
9.5. Reaction of a Moving Fluid and Its Application 333
9.6. Motion over Water Surface 336
9.7. Rockets 338
9.9. Ballistic Missiles 340
9.10. Launching a Rocket from the Earth 342
9.11. Air Resistance. Resistance of Water 342
9.12. Magnus Effect and Circulation 346
9.14. Turbulence in a Fluid Flow 351
9.15. Laminar Flow 352
Part Two Heat. Molecular Physics 353
Chapter 10 Thermal Expansion of Solids and Liquids 353
10.1. Thermal Expansion of Solids and Liquids 353
10.2. Thermometers 357
10.3. Formula of Linear Expansion 359
10.4. Formula for Volume Expansion 361
10.5. Relation between Temperature Coefficients of Linear and Volume Expansion 363
10.6. Measurement of Temperature Coefficient of Volume Expansion for Liquids 364
10.7. Thermal Expansion of Water 364
Chapter 11 Work. Heat. Law of Energy Conservation 366
11.1. Change of the State of Bodies 366
11.2. Heating of Bodies on Which Work Is Done 367
11.3. The Change in the Internal Energy in Heat Transfer 369
11.4. Units of Heat 370
11.5. Dependence of Internal Energy of a Body on Its Mass and Substance of Which It Is Made Up 371
11.6. Heat Capacity of a Body 372
11.7. Specific Heat Capacity 373
11.8. Calorimeter. Measurement of Heat Capacity 373
11.9. The Law of Energy Conservation 376
11.10. Perpetual-Motion Machine (Perpetuum Mobile) 378
11.11. Types of Processes Involving Heat Transfer 378
Chapter 12 Molecular Theory 383
12.1. Molecules and Atoms 383
12.2. Size of Atoms and Molecules 384
12.3. Microworld 385
12.4. Internal Energy from the Viewpoint of Molecular Theory 386
12.5. Molecular Motion 387
12.6. Molecular Motion in Gases
12.7. Brownian Movement 389
12.8. Intermolecular Forces 390
Chapter 13 Properties of Gases 393
13.1. Pressure of a Gas 393
13.2. Temperature Dependence of Gas Pressure 395
13.3. Formula Expressing Gay-Lussac’s Law 396
13.4. Gay-Lussac’s Law from the Point of View of Molecular Theory 397
13.5. Variation of Gas Temperature with a Change in Its Volume. Adiabatic and Isothermal Processes 398
13.6. Boyle’s Law 400
13.7. Formula Expressing Boyle’s Law 402
13.8. The Graph Representing Boyle’s Law 403
13.9. Relation between the Gas Density and Pressure 403
13.10. Molecular Interpretation of Boyle’s Law 404
13.11. Variation of Gas Volume with Temperature 405
13.12. Charles’ Law 406
13.13. Graphs Representing Gay-Lussac’s and Charles’ Laws 407
13.14. Thermodynamic Temperature 408
13.15. Gas Thermometer 410
13.16. Gas Volume and Thermodynamic Temperature 411
13.17. Temperature Dependence of Gas Density 411
13.18. Equation of State for a Gas 412
13.19. Dalton’s Law 413
13.20. Density of Gases 415
13.21. Avogadro’s Law 416
13.22. Mole. Avogadro’s Number 417
13.23. Velocities of Gas Molecules 418
13.24. Measurement of Velocities of Gas Molecules(Stern’s Experiment) 422
13.25. Specific Heat Capacities of Gases 424
13.26. Molar Heat Capacities 425
13.27. The Dulong and Petit Law 426
Chapter 14 Properties of Liquids 428
14.1. Structure of Liquids 428
14.2. Surface Energy 429
14.3. Surface Tension 433
14.4. Liquid Films 436
14.5. Temperature Dependence of Surface Tension 438
14.6. Wetting and Nonwetting 438
14.7. Arrangement of Molecules at the Surface of Bodies 441
14.8. The Role of the Curvature of the Free Surface of a Liquid 442
14.9. Capillary Phenomena 446
14.10. The Height to Which a Liquid Rises in Capillary Tubes 448
14.11. Adsorption 450
14.12. Floatation 451
14.13. Dissolution of Gases 453
14.14. Mutual Solubility of Liquids 455
14.15. Dissolution of Solids in Liquids 456
Chapter 15 Properties of Solids. Transition from Solid to Liquid State 458
15.1. Introduction 458
15.2. Crystalline Bodies 458
15.3. Amorphous Bodies 462
15.4. Crystal Lattice 463
15.5. Crystallisation 466
15.6. Melting and Solidification 467
15.7. Specific Latent Heat of Fusion 468
15.8. Supercooling 470
15.9. The Change in the Density of a Substance during Fusion 471
15.10. Polymers 472
15.11. Alloys 475
15.12. Solidification of Solutions 477
15.13. Cooling Mixtures 477
15.14. Variation of Properties of a Solid 478
Chapter 16 Elasticity and Strength 480
16.1. Introduction 480
16.2. Elastic and Plastic Deformations 480
16.3. Hooke’s Law 481
16.4. Extension and Compression 482
16.5. Shear 484
16.6. Torsion 485
16.7. Bending 487
16.8. Strength 489
16.9. Hardness 490
16.10. What Occurs during Deformations of Bodies? 491
16.11. Energy Variation during Deformations of Bodies 491
Chapter 17 Properties of Vapours 493
17.1. Introduction 493
17.2. Saturated and Unsaturated Vapour 493
17.3. Variation of Volume of Liquid and Saturated Vapour 495
17.4. Dalton’s Law for Vapours 497
17.5. Molecular Pattern of Evaporation 498
17.6. Temperature Dependence of Saturated Vapour Pressure 499
17.7. Boiling 500
17.8. Specific Latent Heat of Vaporisation 504
17.9. Cooling during Evaporation 507
17.10. The Change in the Internal Energy during a Transition of a Substance from the Liquid State to Vapour 508
17.11. Evaporation from Curved Surfaces of Liquids 509
17.12. Superheating of a Liquid 510
17.13. Supersaturation of Vapours 511
17.14. Vapour Saturation in Sublimation 512
17.15. Liquefaction of Gases 513
17.16. Critical Temperature 514
17.17. Liquefaction of Gases in Engineering 517
17.18. Vacuum Technology 520
17.19. Water Vapour in the Atmosphere 521
Chapter 18 Physics of the Atmosphere 525
18.1. The Atmosphere 525
18.2. Heat Balance of the Earth 526
18.3. Adiabatic Processes in the Atmosphere 527
18.4. Clouds 528
18.5. Artificial Precipitation 530
18.6. Wind 530
18.7. Weather Forecasting 532
Chapter 19 Heat Engines 534
19.1. Necessary Conditions for the Operation of Heat Engines 534
19.2. Steam Power Plant 535
19.3. Steam Boiler 536
19.4. Steam Turbine 537
19.5. Steam Piston Engine 539
19.6. Condenser 540
19.7. Efficiency of Heat Engines 541
19.8. Efficiency of a Steam Power Plant 541
19.9. Petrol Internal Combustion Engine 543
19.10. Efficiency of Internal Combustion Engines 547
19.11. Diesel Engine 548
19.12. Jet Engines 549
19.13. Heat Transfer from a Cold to a Hot Body 550
Answers and Solutions 553
Index 556
Back Jacket 568
Back Cover 569

 

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ABC’s of Quantum Mechanics – Rydnik

In this post, we will see the book ABC’s of Quantum Mechanics by V. Rydnik.

IMG_20181012_0001.jpg

About the book:

This book will tell you about the origin and development of quantum mechanics, about its new concepts. It will describe how the new theory deciphered the secrets of the structure of atoms, molecules, crystals, atomic nuclei, and how quantum mechanics is dealing with the problem of the most fundamental of all properties of matter – the interaction of particles and the relationships between fields and matter.

The book was translated from the Russian by and was first published by Mir in 1966.

Credits to itanveer for the original scan.

We cleaned the 2-in-1 scan and added a new cover and bookmarks.

The Internet Archive Link

Original scan as uploaded by itanveer. IA link for the same

There is a Bengali version of the book available also. Thanks to Siddharth for pointing this link:

Link to the Bengali version.

Contents
FROM CLASSICAL MECHANICS TO QUANTUM MECHANICS

In Lieu of an Introduction 11
The Outlines of the New World 12
The Temple of Classical Mechanics 15
The Temple Collapses 17
How the New Theory was Named 18
Physicists Build Models 20
Not Everything Can be Modelled 23
The Invisible, Untouchable World 25
Difficult but Interesting 26

THE FIRST STEPS OF THE NEW THEORY

Heat and Light 29
Blacker than Black 31
Exact Laws, Not Rough Approximations 32
The Ultraviolet Catastrophe 34
Classical Physics at an Impasse 35
The Way out 36
Quanta of Energy 38
The Elusive Quanta 40
An Unaccountable Phenomenon 43
Photons 44
What is Light? 46
The Visiting Cards of Atoms 48
Why do Bodies Emit Light? 50
The Biography of the Atom Written by Niels Bohr 53
From Where do We Reckon the Energy? 57
Excited Atoms 59
The First Setbacks 61
FROM BOHR’S THEORY TO QUANTUM MECHANICS

A Remarkable Article 65
A Little about Ordinary Waves 66
Getting Acquainted With Matter Waves 67
Why Can’t We See de Broglie Waves? 68
The Wave is Found 71
Two-Faced Particles 75
P1lot Waves 76
Together or Separately? 78
A Visit to the Shooting Range 80
Waves of Probability 83
Probability Enters into Physics 84
Cautious Predictions 87
Waves of Particles and Particles of Waves 90
On the Way to the Wave Law 91
Measuring Instruments Take over 95
The Uncertainty Relation 98
What IS to Blame, the Instrument or the Electron? 101
An Attempt with Rather Faulty Tools 103
Another Marvel 106
The Uncertainty Relation Once Agam 109
Matter Waves Again 112
The Wave FunctiOn 114
Waves and Quanta are United 116

ATOMS. MOLECULES. CRYSTALS

Clouds in Place of Orbits 120
Monotony in Diversity 124
Another Marvel- But as Yet Unexplained 125
The Atomic Architect at Work 128
Crazy Atoms 130
Atoms and Chemistry 132
The Birth of a Spectrum 136
Fat Lines and Double Lines 140
Atoms Get Married 142
Solid Bodies are Really Solid 147
Skeletons and Multistorey Structures of Crystals 149
Insulators Can Conduct Current 155
How does Current Move in a Metal? 158
Those Wonderful “Semi-Things” 162
Useful ‘Dirt’ 164
Generous and Greedy Atoms 165

THE INTERIOR OF THE ATOMIC NUCLEUS

On the Threshold 171
The First Step 173
The Second Step 176
The Search for the Mysterious Meson 180
The Strongest Forces of All 181
Once Again about the Stability of Nuclei 185
Tunnels in Nuclei 187
Does the Nucleus Consist of Shells? 191
Where do Gamma Rays Come from? 193
The Nucleus as a Liquid Drop? 196
The Liquid-Drop Nucleus Splits 198
The Secrets of Nuclear Fission 200
How Many Nuclei Can There Be? 203
The Nucleus as Shells and Liquid Drop Together 204
Particles Fly out of the Nucleus that Were Never There 207
The Electron Has an Accomplice 209
Electrons are Born in Nuclei 212
The Hungry Nucleus 215

FROM ATOMIC NUCLEI TO ELEMENTARY PARTICLES

The Discovery of a New World 219
The Invisible Dividing Line 221
A Bit More about the Theory of Relativity 224
The First Difficulties 226
An Unexpected Discovery 228
A Still More Unexpected Discovery 231
The Birth of a ‘Hole’ 235
The Outlines of Emptiness 237
Complete Emptiness? 240
Emptiness depends on Bodies 242
Matter and Fields 245
There is No Emptiness 246
What the Whales Rest on 249
Particles Change Their Guise 251
The Two-Faced Pi-Meson 254
A Clue to Meson Exchange 256
The Secret of Interaction 259
The Kingdom of Virtualities 264
The Virtual Becomes Real 265
In the Search for New Particles 268
Sorting the Booty 270
Antiparticles Come into Action 274
Particles Disintegrate 276
Physicists Classify Interactions 279
The Mystery of the K-Mesons 281
Is the Left Any Different from the Right? 283
A Way out is Found 287
Worlds and Antiworlds 290
What Goes on Inside Particles? 292
The Mysterious Resonances 295
The Curtain Rises 297
Resonances Get Citizenship 299
Triplets, Octets- 302
Quarks 306
Old Ideas Hold One Back 308
The Reverse of the Obvious 310
The Ubiquitous Quantum 312

FROM QUANTUM MECHANICS TO ·>

Indeterminable Determinacies 315
The Biography of Quantum Mechanics 320
Quantum Mechanics Gets Its Second Wind 324

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