The Molecular Cafe (Soviet Science Fiction Stories)

In this post, we will see the book The Molecular Cafe – Soviet Science Fiction Stories
About the book
The book contains stories pub­lished by Soviet science-fiction wri­ters in the last three or four years. Of course, neither the selection of the authors in this little book, nor the stories themselves can offer a com­prehensive idea of Soviet Science fiction, which is so diverse and multiform. At present, more than a hundred Soviet writers are working in the field. Several large story col­lections, novels and serial books are published each year. Science, philos­ophy, sociology, humour, satire are some of their topics.
We hope that this book will ap­peal to the foreign reader and will promote understanding between our nations.
The book was translated from the Russian and was published by Mir in 1968 and edited (translated?) by Arkady and Boris Strugatsky.
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by Ilya Varshavsky 10
by Arkady and Boris Strugatsky 14
by Anatoly Dneprov 29
by Alexander Poleshchuk 59
by Vitaly Krapivin 76
Watch for the “Magellan” Journey by Night
The Fourth Sun
by Romen Yarov 118
by Evgeny Voiskunsky and Isai
Lukodyanov 126
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Lasers and their prospects – Sobolev

In this post, we will see the book Lasers and Their Prospects by N. Sobolev.


About the book

This book explores various aspects of lasers from their basic principles of its operation to applications in diverse fields. The book starts with a discussion on the nature of light and moves on the idea of the atom as a quantum system. In the next chapter, various properties of lasers and the basic idea behind the laser generation like active materials are discussed. the fourth chapter discusses various aspects of applications of lasers in diverse fields such as communications, computers, materials processing, range finding, medicine etc. In the next chapter aspects of laser usage in scientific studies is discussed. The final chapter discusses the future prospects of laser usage.

The book was translated from the Russian by V. Purto and was published by Mir in 1974.

The Internet Archive Link

Introduction 7
Chapter 1. The Nature of Light 13

Particles or Waves? 13
Photons—Quanta of Light 18

Chapter 2. Atom as Quantum System 23

Quantum Concepts on the Atomic Structure Structure of the Atom 23
Quantum Numbers Radiation and Absorption 25
Distribution of Particles Among Energy 36
Levels Active Systems 38

Chapter 3. Generators of Light 43

Ruby Laser 43
Properties of Laser Beam 51
Active Materials 56
Methods and Sources of Excitation 63
Resonant Systems 70
Continuous-Wave Lasers 74
Glass Lasers 77
Giant Pulses 80
Gas Lasers 85
Methods of Concentrating Gas Laser Radiation at One Frequency 101
Liquid Lasers 104
Semiconductor Lasers 106

Chapter 4. Application of Lasers 117

Lasers in Communications 117
Light Beam Modulation Methods 120
Beam Waveguides 132
Lasers in Computers 138
Application of Lasers in Metrology 143
Lasers in Chemistry 145
Lasers in Photography 147
Lasers for Treating of Materials 155
Laser Gyroscopes 159
Lasers in Detection and Ranging 163
Laser Range Finders 167
Laser Tracking of Satellites 170
Lasers in Space Equipment 177
Communication with Spacecraft During Atmos­pheric Re-Entry 182
Detection and Communications Under the Sea 185
Other Military Applications of Lasers 188
Lasers in Medicine and Biology 194

Chapter 5. Lasers and Science 200

Testing Einstein’s Theory of Relativity 200
Measuring the Drift of Continents by Means of Lasers 204
Lasers for Geodetic Studies and Atmospheric Sounding 208
Measuring of Speeds 210 Laser Space Communications 210

Chapter 6. The Prospects of Lasers 225

Pipeline out of a Laser Beam 225
Lasers and Communications with Extraterrestrial Civilizations 228
Spaceship of the Future 241
Looking Ahead 243

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Diamonds Wrought By Man (Scientists To School Children) – Derjaguin, Fedoseev

In this post, we will see the book Diamonds Wrought By Man (Scientists To School Children) by B. V. Derjaguin and D. V. Fedoseev. This book is in the Scientists to School Children series.


About the book

Today, scientists of many countries are working on techniques for making large gem diamonds. Undoubtedly, they shall soon find efficient methods for their production.
But before this time comes, many events will occur in the history of diamond synthesis. Investigators are faced with much time-consuming research aimed at improving existing procedures for diamond synthesis, such as the high-pressure method or the growing of diamonds and seed crystal enlargement from a carbonaceous gas. They are also engaged in the development of new techniques based on the latest advances in various branches of science.
We have made an attempt in this book to tell the story of how close cooperation between chemists and physicists enabled mankind to produce synthetic diamonds, a wonder-material that previously could only be envisioned.

About the authors

 Boris Vladimirovich Derjaguin, D.Sc. (Chem.), is an eminent Soviet scientist in the field of physical chemistry, and an associate member of the USSR Academy o f Sciences since 1946. Dr. Derjaguin was bom in Moscow in 1902 and graduated from the Physics and Mathematics Depart­ ment of Moscow University in 1922. In 1935 he organized the Thin Films Laboratory in the Physical Chemistry Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Dr. Derjaguin has written more than 900 papers in this area of physical chemistry. In 1958 he received the Lomonosov Medal from the USSR Academy of Sciences. Dr. Derjaguin was awarded an honorary degree by Clarkson College of Technology USA- he is also a member of the Carolinische Deutsche Naturforscher.
Dmitri Valerianovich Fedoseev, D.Sc. (Chem.), heads a laboratory in the Physical Chemistry Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Dr. Fedoseev was born in 1934; he graduated in 1956 from the Chemical Department of Odessa University. Dr. Fedoseev is a specialist in chemical kinetics and the physical chemistry of surface phenomena. His main investigations have been in the synthesis of diamond and graphite, as well as the formation of a new phase. He has published over 100 scientific papers, and is the coauthor of three monographs in his field. He was also a member of the team that discovered filamentary diamond crystals.
The book was translated from the Russian by Nicholas Weinstein and was published by Mir in 1985.
The Internet Archive Link


Foreword 7
King of the Minerals 8

Diamond’s Professions and Trades 22

Natural Diamonds 28

Three Periods in the History of Diamond Synthesis 38

What Nucleation Is About 46

For Those Who Want More Details 48

Diamond Synthesis at High Pressures 60

Diamond Powder Growth at Low Pressures 79

Growth of Diamond Films and Crystals at Low Pressures 99

Polycrystalline Diamond Materials 115

Science, Engineering and Synthetic Diamond 124

Not Only Diamonds Are Man-Made 139

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On The Way To Super Elements (Scientists To School Children) – Flerov, Ilyinov

In this post, we will see the book On The Way To Super Elements (Scientists To School Children) by G. N. Flerov and A. S. Ilyinov. This book is a part of the series Scientists To School Children.


About the book
The book explores the ideas regarding creation and discovery of heavy elements which are not found naturally called as the super elements. The various physical ideas that are discussed include periodic laws for elements, stability of nuclei, processes of nuclear decay, transuranium elements, ions and various processes which are involved in the creation.

About the authors

 G. N. Flerov, now a full member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, was born in 1913, graduated from the Leningrad Polytechnic Institute. He began his research work while still a student, in the laboratory headed by I. V. Kur­chatov, the head of the Soviet atomic programme in the 1940-50s. The last two decades G. N. Flerov has been Director of the Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna near Moscow. At this institute the research group he is leading has carried out a number of fundamental investigations into the physics of heavy ions and has discovered six new elements of the periodic table. Together with K.A. Peterzhak, a Soviet experimental physicist, Flerov discovered the spontaneous fission of nuclei in 1940. He received various awards and honors from the Soviet Government for his great scientific achievements, specifically, he holds the Lenin and State Prizes of the USSR.
A. S. Ilyinov, Dr Sc. (Physics) is a theoretical physicist at the Institute of Nuclear Research of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Born in 1944, he graduated from the physics department of the Polytechnic Institute, Tomsk, in 1968. His current research interests concern nuclear reactions. He is the author of about 70 technical publications and a co-author of the discovery of elements 106 and 107.
The book was translated from the Russian by M. Edeleev. and was first published by Mir in 1985.
There is an interesting visualisation in the book regarding the “stability” of atomic nuclei.
Enigmas of the Periodic Law 6
The Stability Continent 11
Neutron Synthesis 20
Transuranium Elements 27
Heavy Ions 33
Kurchatovium 43
What is the Superelement? 53
A Shallow at the Stability Island 59
The Ion Beam 83
The Search for Long Livers 95
Continents to be Discovered 129
Appendix. Additional Facts for Those Eager to Know More 133
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The World Of The Amphibians (Scientists To School Children) – Sergeev

In this post, we will see the book The World Of The Amphibians (Scientists To School Children) by B. F. Sergeev. This is a series of books in which some of the leading scientists in their field write popular expositions for school students.



About the author and the book

B. F. Sergeev,
Doctor of Biological Sciences, is a specialist in the area of evolu­tionary and ecological physiology, he studies the development of living organisms on Earth, from the most primitive forms to man, and how contemporary animals adapted to the most diverse conditions of ex­istence. Many amazing creatures have been studied in his laboratory: sea anemones and planaria, lancelets and
bats, crabs, lampreys, lizards, dolphins and chimpanzees.

He is particularly interested in amphibians, the first vertebrates to adapt to life on land. This book discusses what interesting creatures they are, and what remarkable adjustments they had to develop in adaptation to the environment.

The book also discusses some critically endangered amphibian species across the world.

The book was translated from the Russian by M. Rosenberg and was published by Mir in 1986.

Note: This was one of the very first Mir books that I had purchased from a used book market almost 23 years ago (c. 1996). At that time the book was already wetted, and both the back and the front cover faded (as you can see in the cover above).

The Internet Archive Link


An Ode to the Green Toad 6

The Pioneers of Continents 9

Conservatives 12

The Frog Princess 32

Information Service 75

Family Troubles 101

Childhood 132

Limbless Miners 146

The Red Pages 152

Always Vigilant 178

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The Structure of Matter – Karapetyants, Drakin

In this post, we will see the book The Structure of Matter by M. Karapetyants and S. Drakin.

matter-fc copy.jpg

About the book

Treated in this book arc present-day ideas on the structure of atoms, molecules and crystals, as well as the nature of che­mical bonds. It is supposed that the reader is acquainted with chemistry within the scope of the secondary-school course and that he has some notion of differential and integral calculus.

The study of this book can precede the learning of a higher- school course in chemistry; it will be conducive in widening the student’s knowledge of inorganic chemistry as well as in study­ ing more deeply organic and analytical chemistry.

The book is designed for students in chemical engineering, polytechnical and other institutes of learning in which inorganic and organic chemistry are studied. It can be found useful for engineers, technicians and scientific workers whose industrial or research work is associated with chemical technology, metal­lurgy, biochemistry, or geochemistry.

The book was translated from the Russian by Y. Nadler and G. Kittell and was first published by Mir in 1974 and the second print in 1978.

The Internet Archive Link




1.1. Atoms 15
1.2. The Avogadro Number 16
1.3. Mass and Size of Atoms 19
1.4. The Constituents of an Atom: Electrons and the Nucleus 21


2.1. Principle of Operation of Spectrographs; Kinds of Spectra 23
2.2. The Atomic Spectrum of Hydrogen 24
2.3. The Spectra of Other Elements 25
2.4. The Concept of Light Quantum 26
2.5. History of the Development of the Concepts of Atomic Structure 29


3.1. Dual Nature of Light 32
3.2. The Law of Interdependence of Mass and Energy 34
3.3. Compton Effect 35
3.4. De Broglie Waves 37
3.5. Quantum Mechanics; the Schrodinger Equation 39


4.1. Solution of the Schrodinger Equation for the One-Dimensional Square-Well Model 43
4.2. Three-Dimensional Square-Well Model 47
4.3. Quantum-Mechanical Explanation of Structure of Hydrogen Atom 50
4.4. Quantum Numbers of Electrons in Atoms 54
4.5. Many-Electron Atoms 58
4.6. Origination of Spectra 61
4.7. Energy Characteristics of Atoms: Ionization Energy and Electron Affinity 64


5.1. The Modern Formulation of the Periodic Law 68
5.2. The Structure of the Periodic System 73
5.3. Predicting the Properties of Substances with the Aid of the Periodic Law 78


6.1. Filling of Electron Shells and Subshells 80
6.2. Variation of Ionization Energies 89
6.3. Secondary Periodicity 91


7.1. Oxidation State 93
7.2. Atomic and Ionic Radii 95
7.3. Coordination Number 101
7.4. Compounds Containing R-H and R-O- Bonds 102
7.5. Acids
7.6. Dependence of the Strength of Acids and Bases on the Charge and Radius of the Ion of the Element Forming Them 104


8.1. First Group 106
8.2. Second Group 107
8.3. Third Group 108
8.4. Fourth Group 110
8.5. Fifth Group 111
8.6. Sixth Group 112
8.7. Seventh Group 112
8.8. Eighth Group 114
8.9. Zero Group 115
8.10. Some Conclusions 116




10.1. Molecules
10.2. Development of Conceptions of the Chemical Bond and Valence 120
10.3. A. Butlerov’s Theory of Chemical Structure 122
10.4. Structural Isomerism 124
10.5. Spatial Isomerism 126


11.1. Length of Bonds 132
11.2. Valence Angles 133
11.3. Strength of the Bond 137


12.1. Electron-Diffraction Examination 142
12.2. Molecular Spectra 149


13.1. Electronegativity of the Elements 153
13.2. Ionic and Covalent Bond 155
13.3. The Dipole Moment and Molecular Structure 157
13.4. Effective Charges 162


14.1. Solution of the Schrodinger Equation Using Approximate Functions 164
14.2. Potential Energy Curves for Molecules 170
14.3. Results of Quantum-Mechanical Treatment of the Hydrogen Molecule by Heitler and London 172
14.4. Valence of the Elements on the Basis of the Heitler and London Theory 178
14.5. Explanation of the Orientation of Valence 183
14.6. Single
14.7. The Donor-Acceptor Bond 200
14.8. The Bond in Electron-Deficient Molecules 205
14.9. Molecular Orbital Method 207
14.10. Molecular Orbitals in Diatomic Molecules 210
14.11. Hiickel Method 215


15.1. Energy of the Ionic Bond 225
15.2. Ionic Polarization 229
15.3. Effect of Polarization on Properties of Substances 233
15.4. The Polar Bond and Electronegativity 235


16.1. Complex Compounds 237
16.2 Isomerism of Complex Compounds 239
16.3. Explanation of the Chemical Bond in Complexes on the Basis of Electrostatic Conceptions 241
16.4. Quantum-Mechanical Interpretation of the Chemical Bond in Complex Compounds 242
16.5. Valence Bond Method 243
16.6. Crystal Field Theory 246
16.7. Molecular Orbitals in Complex Compounds 251



18.1. Aggregate States 264
18.2. Molecular Interaction 267

19.1. Characteristics of the Crystalline State 271
19.2. Study of Crystal Structure 277
19.3. Types of Crystal Lattices 281
19.4. Some Crystal Structures 283
19.5. Energetics of Ionic Crystals 291

20.1. Structure of Liquids 297
20.2. The Structure of Water 300
20.3. Solutions of Electrolytes 301
20.4. The Amorphous State 307

I. Determination of the ratio e/m for an electron. 310
II. Characteristics of wave motion. Interference and diffraction of waves. 311
III. Construction of the Schrodinger equation. 315
IV. Polarization of light. 315
V. Derivation of relationship describing electron diffraction by molecules. 317
VI. Moment of inertia. 321
VII. Expressions for wave functions of hybrid orbitals. 323
VIII. Electron spin and magnetic properties of matter. 324
IX. Calculation of the absorption spectra of polymethylene dyes. 325
X. Solution of homogeneous sets of linear equations. 327





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Elementary Textbook on Physics Vol 3 – Landsberg

In this post, we will see Elementary Textbook on Physics – Volume 3 – Oscillations And Waves Optics Atomic And Nuclear Physics edited by G. S. Landsberg.


About the book:

Volume 3 covers aspects of wave motion, oscillations, optics and atomic and modern physics. These topics include:

Basic Concepts. Mechanical Vibrations. Acoustic Vibrations. Electric Oscillations. Wave Phenomena. Interference of Waves. Electromagnetic Waves. Light Phenomena: General. Photometry and Lighting Engineering. Basic Laws of Geometrical Optics. Application of Reflection and Refraction of Light to Image Formation. Optical Systems and Errors. Optical Instruments. Interference of Light. Diffraction of Light. Physical Principles of Optical Holography. Polarization of Light. Transverse Nature of Lightwaves. Electromagnetic Spectrum. Velocity of Light. Dispersion of Light and Colours of Bodies. Spectra and Spectral Regularities. Effects of Light. Atomic Structure. Radioactivity. Atomic Nuclei and Nuclear Power. Elementary Particles. New Achievements in Elementary Particle Physics.

About the series (from Front Jacket and Preface):

Elementary Textbook on Physics first appeared in 1948-52 under the editorship of Academician G.S. Landsberg (1890-1957) and immediately became popular with students preparing for entrance examinations in physics. The success of the book was due very much to the fact that each section was written by a specialist. Contributors to the book included the scientists S.E. Khaikin, M.A. Isakovich, M.A. Leontovich, D.I. Sakharov (Vol. 1), S.G. Kalashnikov (Vol. 2), S.M. Rytov, M.M. Sushchinskii (with the participation of I.A. Yakovlev), F.S. Landsberg-Baryshanskaya, and F.L. Shapiro (Vol. 3).

These three volumes form a course on elementary physics that has become very popular in the Soviet Union. Each sectioh was written by an authority in the appropriate field, while the overall unity and editing was supervised by Academician G.S. Landsberg (1890-1957). This textbook has gone through ten Russian editions and a great deal of effort went into the last edition to introduce SI units and change the terminology and notation for the physical units.

A feature of this course is the relatively small number of formulas and mathematical manipulations. Instead, attention was focussed on explaining physical phenomena in such a way as to combine scientific rigour and a form understandable to school children. Another aspect of the text is the technological application of the physical laws.

These features make the text a world-class textbook.

For students preparing to enter universities and colleges to study physics, and for those it high schools specialising in physics.

The book was translated from the Russian by Natalia Wadhwa and was first published by Mir in 1989.


The Internet Archive Link Vol 1

The Internet Archive Link Vol 2

The Internet Archive Link Vol 3

Contents Vol 3

Front Cover 1
Front Jacket 2
Title Page 8
Contents 10
Preface to the First Russian Edition 16
Part One Oscillations and Waves 18
Chapter 1 Mechanical Vibrations Basic Concepts. 18
1.1. Periodic Motion. Period 18
1.2. Oscillatory Systems. Free Oscillations 18
1.3. Pendulum Kinematics of Oscillations 20
1.4. Vibrations of a Timing Fork 21
1.5. Harmonic Oscillations. Frequency 23
1.6. Phase Shift 26
1.7. Dynamics of Pendulum Oscillations 28
1.8. Formula for the Period of a Simple Pendulum 30
1.9. Elastic Vibrations 32
1.10. Torsional Vibrations 34
1.11. Effect of Friction. Damping 35
1.12. Forced Vibrations 38
1.13. Resonance 39
1.14. Effect of Friction on Resonance Phenomena 41
1.15. Examples of Resonance Phenomena 42
1.16. Resonance Phenomena Induced by an Anharmonic Periodic Force 44
1.17. The Relation Between the Form and Harmonic Composition of Periodic Oscillations 47
Chapter 2 Acoustic Vibrations 51
2.1. Acoustic Vibrations 51
2.2. Subject of Acoustics 52
2.3. Musical Tone. Laudness and Pitch 53
2.4. Tembre 54
2.5. Acoustic Resonance 56
2.6. Recording and Reproduction of Sounds 58
2.7. Analysis and Synthesis of Sound 59
2.8. Noises 60
Chapter 3 Electric Oscillations 63
3.1. Electric Oscillations and Methods of Their Observation 63
3.2. Oscillatory Circuit 66
3.3. Mechanical Analogy. Thomson Formula 69
3.4. Electric Resonance 72
3.5. Undamped Oscillations. Self-Excited Oscillatory Systems 75
3.6. Valve Oscillator 78
3.7. Theory of Oscillations 80
Chapter 4 Wave Phenomena 84
4.1. Waves 84
4.2. Wave Propagation Velocity 86
4.3. Radiolocation
4.4. Transverse Waves in a Cord 90
4.5. Longitudinal Waves in an Air Column 93
4.6. Waves on the Surface of a Liquid 96
4.7. Energy Transfer by Waves 98
4.8. Reflection of Waves 101
4.9. Diffraction 103
4.10. Directional Emission 105
Chapter 5 Interference of Waves 108
5.1. Superposition of Waves 108
5.2. Interference of Waves 109
5.3. Conditions for Formation of Interference Maxima and Minima 111
5.4. Interference of Acoustic Waves 113
5.5. Standing Waves 114
5.6. Vibrations of Elastic Bodies as Standing Waves 116
5.7. Free Vibrations of a String 117
5.8. Standing Waves in Plates and Other Extended Bodies 120
5.9. Resonance in the Presence of Many Frequencies 122
5.10. Conditions for a Perfect Sound Emission 124
5.11. Binaural Phase Effect. Sound Direction Finding 126
Chapter 6 Electromagnetic Waves 128
6.1. Electromagnetic Waves 128
6.2. Conditions for a Perfect Emission of Electromagnetic Waves 129
6.3. Oscillator and Aerials 130
6.4. Hertz’ Experiments on Electromagnetic Waves. Lebedev’s Experiments 134
6.5. Electromagnetic Theory of Light. Scale of Electromagnetic Waves 137
6.6. Experiments with Electromagnetic Waves 139
6.7. Popov’s Invention of Radio 146
6.8. Modern Radio Communication 149
6.9. Other Applications of Radio 152
6.10. Propagation of Radio Waves 154
6.11. Concluding Remarks 158
Part Two Geometrical Optics 162
Chapter 7 Light Phenomena: General 162
7.1. Effects of Light 162
7.2. Interference of Light. Colours of Thin Films 164
7.3. Brief Information from the History of Optics 165
Chapter 8 Photometry and Lighting Engineering 167
8.1. Radiant Energy. Luminous Flux 167
8.2. Point Sources of Light 168
8.3. Luminous Intensity and Illuminance 170
8.4. Laws of Illumination 171
8.5. Units of Photometric Quantities 173
8.6. Brightness of Sources 174
8.7. Problems of Lighting Engineering 176
8.8. Appliances for Concentrating Luminous Flux 177
8.9. Reflectors and Scatterers 178
8.10. Brightness of Illuminated Surfaces. 181
8.11. Photometry and Measuring Instruments 182
Chapter 9 Basic Laws of Geometrical Optics 187
9.1. Rectilinearity of Wave Propagation 187
9.2. Rectilinear Propagation of Light. Light Rays 188
9.3. Laws of Reflection and Refraction of Light 193
9.4. Reversibility of Light Rays 197
9.5. Refractive Index 199
9.6. Total Internal Reflection 202
9.7. Refraction in a Plane-parallel Plate 205
9.8. Refraction in a Prism 206
Chapter 10 Application of Reflection and Refraction of Light for Image Formation 209
10.1. Light Source and Its Image 209
10.2. Refraction in a Lens. Focal Points 210
10.3. Images of Points Located on the Principal Optical Axis of a Lens. Lens Equation 215
10.4. Applications of the Thin Lens Equation. Real and Virtual Images 217
10.5. Image of a Point Source and of an Extended Object Formed by a Plane Mirror. Image of a Point Source Formed by a Spherical Mirror 221
10.6. Focal Point and Focal Length of a Spherical Mirror 224
10.7. Relation Between the Positions of a Source and Its Image on the Principal Optical Axis of a Spherical Mirror 225
10.8. Methods of Preparation of Lenses and Mirrors 226
10.9. Images of Extended Objects Formed by Spherical Mirrors and Lenses 227
10.10. Magnification of Images Formed by Spherical Mirrors and Lenses 228
10.11. Image Formation by Spherical Mirrors and Lenses 230
10.12. Optical Power of Lenses 235
Chapter 11 Optical Systems and Errors 237
11.1. Optical System 237
11.2. Principal Planes and Principal Points of a System 237
11.3. Image Construction in a System 239
11.4. Magnification of a System 239
11.5. Drawbacks of Optical Systems 240
11.6. Spherical Aberration 241
11.7. Astigmatism 244
11.8. Chromatic Aberration 245
11.9. Confinement of Beam Cross Sectionsin Optical Systems 246
11.10. Lens Aperture 247
11.11. Brightness of Image 248
Chapter 12 Optical Instruments 251
12.1. Projection Optical Instruments 251
12.2. Photographic Camera 253
12.3. The Human Eye as an Optical System 255
12.4. Optical Instruments Outfitting the Eye 257
12.5. Magnifying Glasses 259
12.6. Microscopes 261
12.7. Resolving Power of Microscopes 263
12.8. Telescopes 263
12.9. Magnification of Telescopes 265
12.10. Telescopes in Astronomy 266
12.11. Image Brightness for Extended and Point Sources 270
12.12. Lomonosov’s Telescope 272
12.13. Binocular Vision and Sensation of Depth. Stereoscopes 272
Part Three Physical Optics 277
Chapter 13 Interference of Light 277
13.1. Geometrical and Physical Optics 277
13.2. Experimental Realization of Interference of Light 277
13.3. Explanation of Thin Film Colours 281
13.4. Newton’s Rings 282
13.5. Calculation of Wavelength of Light with the Help of Newton’s Rings 284
Chapter 14 Diffraction of Light 287
14.1. Bundles of Rays and the Shape of Wave Surface 287
14.2. Huygens’ Principle 288
14.3. Reflection and Refraction from the Viewpoint of Huygens’ Principle 289
14.4. Huygens’ Principle in Fresnel Interpretation 291
14.5. Simple Diffraction Phenomena 292
14.6. Explanation of Diffraction by Fresnel’s Method 295
14.7. Resolving .Power of Optical Instruments 296
14.8. Diffraction Grating 299
14.9. Diffraction Grating as a Spectral Instrument 301
14.10. Preparation of Diffraction Gratings 302
14.11. Diffraction at an Oblique Incidence of Light on a Grating 302
Chapter 15 Physical Principles of Optical Holography 304
15.1. Photography and Holography 304
15.2. Holographic Recording with a Plane Reference Wave 307
15.3. Obtaining Optical Images by Reconstructing the Wave Front 310
15.4. Holographing by Opposing Light Beam Method 313
15.5. Application of Holography to Optical Interferometry 315
Chapter 16 Polarization of Light. TransverseNature of Light Waves 320
16.1. Passage of Light Through Tourmaline 320
16.2. Hypotheses Explaining Observed Phenomena. Polarized Light 321
16.3. Mechanical Model of Polarization 322
16.4. Polaroids 323
16.5. Thinsverse Nature of Light Waves and Electromagnetic Theory of Light 323
Chapter 17 Electromagnetic Spectrum 325
17.1. Methods of Investigating Electromagnetic Waves of Different Wavelengths 325
17.2. Infrared and Ultraviolet Radiation 326
17.3. Discovery of X-rays 327
17.4. Effects of X-rays 329
17.5. X-ray Ihbe 330
17.6. Origination and Nature of X-rays 331
17.7. Scale of Electromagnetic Waves 332
Chapter 18 Speed of Light 334
18.1. First Attempts to Determine the Speed of Light 334
18.2. Determination of the Speed of Light by Roemer 335
18.3. Measurement of the Speed of Lightby Rotating-Mirror Method 336
Chapter 19 Dispersion of Light and Colours ofBodies 339
19.1. State-of-the-art in Chromatography Before Newton’s Studies 339
19.2. Main Discovery of Newton in Optics 339
19.3. Interpretation of Newton’s Observations 341
19.4. Dispersion of Refractive Indicesfor Different Materials 342
19.5. Complementary Colours 343
19.6. Spectral Composition of Light Emitted by Various Sources 345
19.7. Light and Colours of Bodies 346
19.8. Absorption
19.10. Coloured Bodies Illuminated by Coloured Light 348
19.11. Masking and Unmasking 349
19.12. Colour Saturation 350
19.13. Colour of the Sky and Dawns 351
Chapter 20 Spectra and Spectral Regularities 354
20.1. Spectroscopic Instrumentation 354
20.2. types of Emission Spectra 355
20.3. Origin of Different Types of Spectra 357
20.4. Spectral Laws 358
20.5. Spectral Analysis Using Emission Spectra 359
20.6. Absorption Spectra of Liquids and Solids 362
20.7. Absorption Spectra of Atoms. Fraunhofer Lines 362
20.8. Investigation of Red-Hot Bodies. Blackbody 363
20.9. Temperature Dependence of Emission of Red-Hot Bodies. Incandescent Lamps 365
20.10. Optical Pyrometry 366
Chapter 21 Effects of Light 368
21.1. Action of Light on a Substance. Photoelectric Effect 368
21.2. Laws of Photoelectric Effect 369
21.3. Light Quanta 372
21.4. Application of Photoelectric Phenomena 374
21.5. Photoluminescence. Stokes’ Shift 376
21.6. Physical Meaning of Stokes’ Shift 378
21.7. Luminescent Analysis 378
21.8. Photochemical Action of Light 379
21.9. The Role of Wavelength in Photochemical Processes 380
21.10. Photography 380
21.11. Photochemical Theory of Vision 384
21.12. Duration of Visual Sensation 386
Part Four Atomic and Nuclear Physics 393
Chapter 22 Atomic Structure 393
22.1. Atoms 393
22.2. Avogadro’s Constant. Size and Mass of Atoms 394
22.3. Elementary Electric Charge 396
22.4. Units of Charge
22.5. Measurement of Mass of Charged Particles. Mass Spectrograph 400
22.6. Electron Mass. Velocity Dependence of Electron Mass 403
22.7. Einstein’s Law 405
22.8. Mass of Atoms. Isotopes 408
22.9. Isotope Separation. Heavy Water 410
22.10. Nuclear Model of Atom 412
22.11. Energy Levels of Atoms 415
22.12. Induced Emission of Light. Quantum Generators 420
22.13. Hydrogen Atom. Peculiarities of Motion of an Electron in an Atom 424
22.14. Many-Electron Atoms. Origin of Optical and X-Ray Spectra of Atoms 428
22.15. Mendeleev’s Periodic System of Elements 429
22.16. Quantum and Wave Properties of Photons 432
22.17. Fundamentals of Quantum (Wave) Mechanics 438
Chapter 23 Radioactivity 446
23.1. Discovery of Radioactivity. Radioactive Elements 446
23.2. Alpha-, Beta- and Gamma- Radiation. Wilson Cloud Chamber
23.3. Methods of Detecting Charged Particles 453
23.4. Properties of Radioactive Radiation 456
23.5. Radioactive Decay and Radioactive Thinsformations 460
23.6. Applications of Radioactivity 464
23.7. Accelerators 464
Chapter 24 Atomic Nuclei and Nuclear Power 470
24.1. Nuclear Reactions 470
24.2. Nuclear Reactions and Transformation of Elements 472
243. Properties of Neutrons 473
24.4. Nuclear Reactions Induced by Neutrons 475
24.5. Artificial Radioactivity 477
24.6. Positron 479
24.7. Application of Einstein’s Law to Annihilation and Pair Formation 481
24.8. The Structure of Atomic Nuclei 482
24.9. Nuclear Energy. Energy Sources of Stars 485
24.10. Uranium Fission. Chain Nuclear Reaction 488
24.11. Application of Nondecaying Chain Fission Reaction. Atom and Hydrogen Bombs 493
24.12. Nuclear Reactors and Their Applications 495
Chapter 25 Elementary Particles 503
25.1. General Remarks 503
25.2. Neutrino 505
25.3. Nuclear Forces. Mesons 507
25.4. Particles and Antiparticles 511
25.5. Particles and Interactions 516
25.6. Detectors of Elementary Particles 518
25.7. Clock Paradox 523
25.8. Cosmic Radiation (Cosmic Rays) 524
Chapter 26 New Achievements in Elementary-Particle Physics 528
26.1. Accelerators and Experimental Technology 528
26.2. Hadrons and Quarks 533
26.3. Quark Structure of Hadrons 542
26.4. Quark Model and Formation and Decay of Hadrons 543
26.5. Leptons. Intermediate Bosons. The Unity of All Interactions 547
Answers and Solutions 551
Part I Oscillations and Waves 551
Part II Geometrical Optics 553
Part III Physical Optics 556
Part IV Atomic and Nuclear Physics 557
Conclusion 562
Index 565
Back Jacket 577
Back Cover 578


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