The Activity of Cosmonauts – Zavalova, Ponamarenko

In this post we will see the book The Activity of Cosmonauts by N. D. Zavalova and V. A. Ponomarenko.

About the book:

The problems faced by cosmonauts in space are unique in many respects. Isolation, prolonged inactivity, the need to be constantly alert, weightlessness – all of these
factors create frequently unusual sensations and illusions which cannbe dangerous if the cosmonaut does not recognize the problem and deal adequately with it. The work contains abstracts of numerous Soviet papers on spacecraft simulator experiments involving isolation, hypokinesia, and other stressful situations.

The book is a part of NASA technical translation and was published in 1972.

Translation of: “Deyatel’ nost’ Kosmonavta,” Material  for Chapter 4, Volume 2, Part 4 of the work: Osnovy Kosmicheskoy Biologii i Medisiny [Foundations of Space Biology and Medicine], Moscow, Academy of Sciences of the USSR, 1970, 160 pages.

The Internet Archive Link

Contents

Section 1

General Characteristics of the Conditions and Features of Activity of Cosmonauts 1

Section 2

Indices and Methods of Studying Working Ability 19

Section 3

Factors Determining Efficiency and Reliability of Activity 47

Section 4

Information Analysis and the Making of Decisions by the Individual 68

Section 5

The Man-Machine Problem 90

References 115

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The Moon and Man – Rebrov, Khozin

In this post, we will see the book The Moon and Man by M. Rebrov and G. Khozin.

Rebrov-Khozin-The-Moon-and-Man-Peace-1967-fc.png

About the book

The day is not far off when a spaceship will land on one of the moon’s vast plains and the first earthmen will step out onto lunar soil. Scientists and engineers are hard at work preparing for that great day. Automatic probes have reconnoitred the path to the moon, photographed its unseen side, taken close-up pictures of the visible side and answered questions the gravitational and magnetic fields and radiation belts in outer space. Several rockets have hit the moon. The next step is a manned trip to the earth’s natural satellite.
How men are preparing for a trip to the moon, what dangers astronauts may face there, and how astronautics may be expected to develop in future the subjects are some of the subjects discussed in this book.
The book was published before the moon landings by the Americans. So there is a lot of speculation involved, particularly from the Soviet perspective.
The book was translated from the Russian by Vladimir Talmy and was published by Peace in 1967.
 CONTENTS
By Way of an Introduction 9
1. The Promise of Outer Space 11
2. Moon Fables 18
3. Birth of a Dream 22
4. What We Know about the Moon 27
5. Hypotheses and Theories 34
6. Hazards of Outer Space 44
7. Automatic Explorers 48
8. Leaving the Earth 59
9. Rocket Engines 69
10.The Path to the Moon 77
11. Moon Projects 84
12. Robots on the Moon 102
13. The First Men on the Moon 106
14 The Call of the Cosmos 115
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Cybernetics Within Us – Saparina

In this post, we will see the book Cybernetics Within Us by Yelena Saparina.
Saparina-Cybernetics-within-Us-Peace-fc copy
About the book
Can a rat tell the difference between a Raphael Madonna and a Picasso Girl in Blue? Would a Martian (if there is such a thing) recognize a live cat after having seen a photograph of one? Can a “seeing”electronic machine be made to tell a cat from a dog or an A from a B? How would it go about “computing” the image? And is “machine thinking”anything like human thinking?
These and other such problems are investigated in the branch of cybernetics that studies living systems: bionics, as this ultramodern science is now called. It developed when scientists began to compare the design and operation of electronic systems with living organisms. Our body, they found, is a complex cybernetic system controlled by countless self-regulating devices. In fact, every single cell of our body is an automatic control device in its own right. Millions upon millions of tiny cybernetic units are constantly at work within us. They maintain normal blood pressure, control the composition of the gastric juices, ensure the rhythmic contraction of the heart and lungs, and do a thousand other things that come under the heading of “vital functions”of the organism.
How they work and how our body functions is described in this popular exposition, which requires no previous knowledge of cybernetics, biology, electronics, or any other subject for that matter (except reading, of course).
The book was translated from the Russian by Vladimir Talmy and was published by Peace in 1966.
 CONTENTS
Page Author’s Preface 5
By Way of an Introduction 7
I. DISEASES OF MEN AND “DISEASES” OF MACHINES
Cybernetics and the Heart 13
Electronic Doctor 18
The Equations of Health 22
Feedback and Physiology
II. ONE HUNDRED MILLION MILLION AUTOMATIC UNITS WITHIN US
Spades, Clubs, Diamonds,Hearts 35
Protein Alphabet 40
Machines of Life 44
Line-Up of Molecules 48
Our “Central Heating” System 52
Beehive Cybernetics 58
Body Communication Systems 62
Living Automation 67
III. LABORATORY OF THINKING
Mapping the Brain 70
Neural Architecture 78
Telephone Exchange? 87 S
Step Search 94
Guessing Game 100
Cybernetic Training 106
King For a Day 112
Terra Incognita 118
A Brain Within the Brain 127
“Alarm Clock”and “Chronometer” 137
Pleasure Centre. 144
Reflex Circuitry 151
Voices of Neurons 155
Neuron Junctions 160
The Boons of Redundancy 165
Electronic Brains 175
IV. IF MACHINES WENT TO SCHOOL
“Insect” Machines 179
“Vertebrate” Machines 182
Guessing Games For the Brain 188
Switches and Controllers 194
A Vicious Circle 205
How to Teach a Machine 213
Of Cats and Martians 219
V. PERCEPTION IN MACHINES
Television in the Brain 225
Behind the Screen 231
Seeing Machines 240
Hearing and Talking Machines 250
A Signal of Signals 255
Transmission Capacity of the Brain 264
Language and Information 271
Machine Language 276
Is Strict Logic Necessary? 282
Algorithms of Learning 289
From a Machine’s Point of View 295
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The Code of Life – Shvarts

In this post, we will see the book The Code of Life by A. Shvarts.
Shvarts-Code-of-Life-Peace-1966_0000.jpg
About the book
In this book the author relates in popular language about the latest attainments of biology and medicine, and about the future of these sciences.
The reader will learn about exciting operation on the heart, the mystery of cancer, the use of electronics in – medicine and about ingenious experiments aimed at extracting fresh information. He will get acquainted with viruses and the construction of the living cell, and will learn about the role of the new and rapidly developing molecular biology.
About the author
Anatoly Shvarts
Physician and writer Anatoly Shvarts had done much to popularize biology and medicine. He has written several widely-read books about Russian doctors and physiologists.
In “The Code of Life” Shvarts takes the present-day level of biology and medicine and extends it into the future.
The book was translated from the Russian by George Yankovsky and was published by Peace publishers in 1966.
 CONTENTS
Part One Medicine takes off 8
HEALING THE HEART 9
In a Vicious Circle 10
Three Barriers 14
Cold—Enemy or Friend? 20
The “Sputnik” of Surgery 26
THE DOCTOR AND THE ELECTRON 29
Interviewing the Heart 31
Proteins Broadcast 36
Surgery in Full View 41
Diagnostic Complex 49
An Electronic Colleague 61
IRON HEALTH 67
The Iron Hand 68
Farsighted Skin 73
One Kidney in Reserve 79
The Formula of the Heart 83
FIGHTING OBSTREPEROUS TISSUE 90
The First Find 91
Strange Geography 95
Wandering Carcinogens 98
Magic Bullets 102
IN THE DEPTHS OF THE LIVING 106
Hours, Not Days! 107
The Seeds of Life 112
Hormone Plantations 117
The Heart of an Eagle 121
A Ray of Hope 126
Part TWO. THE TREASURE HOUSE OF THE CELL 136
NEVER GROWING OLD 137
The Anatomy of the Eiffel Tower 137
What People Live by 141
The Lymphocyte Builder 146
Prometheus and Monkeys 148
The Best Operation 150
VIRUS OF MANY GUISES 154
Ailment in Seven-League Boots 154
The Enemy Attacks 158
How the Virus was Tamed 162
Counterblow 164
A TRIP INTO THE MUSCLE 169
A Miracle of Molecular Technology 171
The Fire of Life 176
Pulsed Messengers   181
THE BATTLEFIELD OF IMMUNITY   185
Yours and Mine 185
The Tribulations of Insulin 189
The Profile of a Molecule 192
Medicine of the Future 198
THE CODE OF LIFE  202
Inside the Cell 203
Protein on the Production Line 207
Who? 217
Disowning One’s Own 225
NEWS FROM INSIDE THE CELL 228
A Substance or a Being? 230
This is How  234
A Tilt with the Invisible. 238
Problem “X” 247
Virus Hunters 261
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How reliable is the brain? -Asratyan, Simonov

In this post, we will see the book How reliable is the brain? by E. Asratyan and P. Simonov.

brain-fc.png

About the book

The book deals with topical problems of contempo­rary neurophysiology related to the restoration of impaired functions of the central nervous system.

The fundamental principles underlying the work of the brain, which enable it to function for many years without interruption, today command the interest of experts not only in medicine and biology, but in automa­tion as well. This is because these principles can be utilized to make computing systems more reliable.

The book was translated from the Russian by Boris Belitsky and was published by Mir in 1960s (exact date is not given).

The Internet Archive Link

CONTENTS
THE NO. 1 PROBLEM 7
THE CENTRAL “CONTROL PANEL’ OF THE ORGANISM 14
PROTECTIVE INHIBITION 58
LATENT RESERVES 109
INDEPENDENCE AND CENTRALISM 124
THE “SUPREME ORGAN’’ OF RESTORATION AND DEFENCE 140
LEARNING FROM NATURE 171

 

 

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Geometry – Pogorelov

In this post, we will see the book Geometry by A. Pogorelov.

Pogorelov-Geometry-Mir-1987

ABOUT THE BOOK

This is a manual for the students of universities and teachers’ training colleges. Containing the compulsory course of geometry, its particular impact is on elementary topics. The book is, therefore, aimed at professional training of the school or university teacher-to-be. The first part, analytic geometry, is easy to assimilate, and actually reduced to acquiring skills in applying algebraic methods to elementary geometry.
The second part, differential geometry, contains the basics of the theory of curves and surfaces. The third part, foundations of geometry, is original. The fourth part is devoted to certain topics of elementary
geometry. The book as a whole must interest the reader in school or university teacher’s profession.

The book was translated from the Russian by Leonid Levant, Aleksandr Repyev and Oleg Efimov and published by Mir in 1987.

All credits to the original uploader. We have converted to pdf from djvu and added bookmarks/OCR to pdf. On a personal note, I am not a big fan of djvu format though it has a smaller size.

The Internet Archive Link

 

Contents

Preface 10

Part One. Analytic Geometry 11

Chapter I. Rectangular Cartesian Coordinates in the Plane 11

1. Introducing Coordinates in the Plane 11
2. Distance Between Two Points 12
3. Dividing a Line Segment in a Given Ratio 13
4. Equation of a Curve. Equation of a Circle 15
5. Parametric Equations of a Curve 17
6. Points of Intersection of Curves 19
7. Relative Position of Two Circles 20
Exercises to Chapter I 21

Chapter II. Vectors in the Plane 26

1. Translation 26
2. Modulus and the Direction of a Vector 28
3. Components of a Vector 30
4. Addition of Vectors 30
5. Multiplication of a Vector by a Number 31
6. Collinear Vectors 32
7. Resolution of a Vector into Two Non-Collinear Vectors 33
8. Scalar Product 34
Exercises to Chapter II 36

Chapter III. Straight Line in the Plane 38

1. Equation of a Straight Line. General Form 38
2. Position of a Straight Line Relative to a Coordinate System 40
3. Parallelism and Perpendicularity Condition for Straight Lines 41
4. Equation of a Pencil of Straight Lines 42
5. Normal Form of the Equation of a Straight Line 43
6. Transformation of Coordinates 44
7. Motions in the Plane 47
8. Inversion 47
Exercises to Chapter III

Chapter IV. Conic Sections 53

1. Polar Coordinates 53
2. Conic Sections 54
3. Equations of Conic Sections in Polar Coordinates 56
4. Canonical Equations of Conic Sections in Rectangular Cartesian Coordinates 57
5. Types of Conic Sections 59
6. Tangent Line to a Conic Section 62
7. Focal Properties of Conic Sections 65
8. Diameters of a Conic Section 67
9. Curves of the Second Degree 69
Exercises to Chapter IV 71

Chapter V. Rectangular Cartesian Coordinates and Vectors in Space 76

1. Cartesian Coordinates in Space. Introduction 76
2. Translation in Space 78
3. Vectors in Space 79
4. Decomposition of a Vector into Three Non-coplanar Vectors 80
5. Vector Product of Vectors 81
6. Scalar Triple Product of Vectors 83
7. Affine Cartesian Coordinates, 84
8. Transformation of Coordinates 85
9. Equations of a Surface and a Curve in Space 87

Exercises to Chapter V 89

Chapter VI.

Plane and a Straight Line in Space 95

1. Equation of a Plane 95
2. Position of a Plane Relative to a Coordinate System 96
3. Normal Form of Equations of the Plane 97
4. Parallelism and Perpendicularity of Planes 98
5. Equations of a Straight Line 99
6. Relative Position of a Straight Line and a Plane, of Two Straight Lines 100
7. Basic Problems en Straight Lines and Planes 102
Exercises to Chapter VI 103

Chapter VII. Quadric Surfaces 109

1. Special System of Coordinates 109
2. Classification of Quadric Surfaces 112
3. Ellipsoid 113
4. Hyperboloids 115
5. Paraboloids 116
6. Cone and Cylinders 118
7. Rectilinear Generators on Quadric Surfaces 119
8. Diameters and Diametral Planes of a Quadric Surface 120
9. Axes of Symmetry for a Curve. Planes of Symmetry for a Surface 122
Exercises to Chapter VII 123

Part Two. Differential Geometry 126

Chapter VIII. Tangent and Osculating Planes of Curve 126

1. Concept of Curve 126
2. Regular Curve 127
3. Singular Points of a Curve 128
4. Vector Function of Scalar Argument 129
5. Tangent to a Curve 131
6. Equations of Tangents for Various Methods of Specifying a Curve 132
7. Osculating Plane of a Curve 134
8. Envelope of a Family of Plane Curves 136
Exercises to Chapter VIII 137

Chapter IX. Curvature and Torsion of Curve 140

1. Length of a Curve 140
2. Natural Parametrization of a Curve 142
3. Curvature 142
4. Torsion of a Curve 145
5. Frenet Formulas 147
6. Evolute and Evolvent of a Plane Curve 14

Exercises to Chapter IX 149

Chapter X. Tangent Plane and Osculating Paraboloid of Surface 151

1. Concept of Surface 151
2. Regular Surfaces 152
3. Tangent Plane to a Surface 153
4. Equation of a Tangent Plane 155
5. Osculating Paraboloid of a Surface 156
6. Classification of Surface Points 158
Exercises to Chapter X 159

Chapter XI. Surface Curvature 161

1. Surface Linear Element 161
2. Area of a Surface 162
3. Normal Curvature of a Surface 164
4. Indicatrix of the Normal Curvature 165
5. Conjugate Coordinate Lines on a Surface 167
6. Lines of Curvature 168
7. Mean and Gaussian Curvature of a Surface 170
8. Example of a Surface of Constant Negative Gaussian Curvature 172
Exercises to Chapter XI 173

Chapter XII. Intrinsic Geometry of Surface 175

1. Gaussian Curvature as an Object of the Intrinsic Geometry of Surfaces 175
2. Geodesic Lines on a Surface 178
3. Extremal Property of Geodesics 179
4. Surfaces of Constant Gaussian Curvature 180
5. Gauss-Bonnet Theorem 181
6. Closed Surfaces 182
Exercises to Chapter XII 184

Part Three. Foundations of Geometry 186

Chapter XIII. Historical Survey 186

1. Euclid’s Elements 186
2. Attempts to Prove the Fifth Postulate 188
3. Discovery of Non-Euclidean Geometry 189
4. Works on the Foundations of Geometry in the Second Half of the 19th century 191
5. System of Axioms for Euclidean Geometry according to D. Hilbert 192

Chapter XIV. System of Axioms for Euclidean Geometry and Their Immediate Corollaries 194

1. Basic Concepts 194
2. Axioms of Incidence 195
3. Axioms of Order 196
4. Axioms of Measure for Line Segments and Angles 197 5. Axiom of Existence of a Triangle Congruent to a Given One 199
6. Axiom of Existence of a Line Segment of Given Length 200
7. Parallel Axiom 202
8. Axioms for Space 202

Chapter XV. Investigation of Euclidean Geometry Axioms 203

1. Preliminaries 203
2. Cartesian Model of Euclidean Geometry 204
3. “Betweenness” Relation for Points in a Straight Line. Verification of the Axioms of Order 205
4. Length of a Segment. Verification of the Axiom of Measure for Line Segments 207
5. Measure of Angles in Degrees. Verification of Axiom III* 208
6. Validity of the Other Axioms in the Cartesian Model 210
7. Consistency and Completeness of the Euclidean Geometry Axiom System 212
8. Independence of the Axiom of Existence of a Line Segment of Given Length 214
9. Independence of the Parallel Axiom 216
10. Lobachevskian Geometry 218
Chapter XVI. Projective Geometry 222

1. Axioms of Incidence for Projective Geometry 222
2. Desargues Theorem 223
3. Completion of Euclidean Space with the Elements at Infinity 225
4. Topological Structure of a Projective Straight Line and Plane 226
5. Projective Coordinates and Projective Transformations 228
6. Cross Ratio 230
7. Harmonic Separation of Pairs of Points 232
8. Curves of the Second Degree and Quadric Surfaces 233
9. Steiner Theorem 235
10. Pascal Theorem 236
11. Pole and Polar 238
12. Polar Reciprocation. Brianchon Theorem 240
13. Duality Principle 241
14. Various Geometries in Projective Outlook 243
Exercises to Chapter XVI 245
Part Four. Certain Problems of Elementary Geometry 247

Chapter XVII. Methods for Solution of Construction Problems 247

1. Preliminaries 247
2. Locus Method 248
3. Similarity Method 250
4. Reflection Method 251
5. Translation Method 251
6. Rotation Method 252
7. Inversion Method 253
8. On Solvability of Construction Problems 255
Exercises to Chapter XVII 256

Chapter XVIII. Measuring Lengths, Areas and Volumes 258

1. Measuring Line Segments 258
2. Length of a Circumference 260
3. Areas of Figures 261
4. Volumes of Solids 265
5. Area of a Surface 267

Chapter XIX. Elements of Projection Drawing 268

1. Representation of a Point on an Epure 268
2. Problems Leading to a Straight Line 269
3. Determination of the Length of a Line Segment 270
4. Problems Leading to a Straight Line and a Plane 271
5. Representation of a Prism and a Pyramid 273
6. Representation of a Cylinder, a Cone and a Sphere 274
7. Construction of Sections 275
Exercises to Chapter XIX 277

Chapter XX. Polyhedral Angles and Polyhedra 278

1. Cosine Law for a Trihedral Angle 278
2. Trihedral Angle Conjugate to a Given One 279
3. Sine Law for a Trihedral Angle 280
4. Relation Between the Face Angles of a Polyhedra Angles 281
5. Area of a Spherical Polygon 282
6. Convex Polyhedra. Concept of Convex Body 283
7. Euler Theorem for Convex Polyhedra 284
8. Cauchy Theorem 285
9. Regular Polyhedra 288
Exercises to Chapter XX 289

Answers to Exercises, Hints and Solutions 291

 

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नन्हें मुन्नो के लिए भौतिकी – सिकारुक (Physics for Kids – Sikoruk)

In this post, we will see the book नन्हें मुन्नो के लिए भौतिकी – सिकारुक in Hindi (Physics for Kids – Sikoruk).

h-rus-bhautiki_0000

इस पुस्तक के बारें में

इस पुस्तक में  लेखक ने सरस ढंग से नन्हें-मुन्नो का भौतिकी की मुख्य परिघटनाओ व नियमों से परिचय कराया है। स्कूल में पढ़ाई शुरू करने से पूर्व भौतिकी की विभिन्न धारणाओं को अच्छी तरह समझने के लिए ये पुस्तक बच्चों को केवल पढ़कर सुनना ही पर्याप्त नहीं है।इसके लिए इसमें वर्णित परिघटनाओं का बड़ों के साथ बैठकर प्रयोग तथा प्रेक्शन करना सर्वाधिक महत्वपूर्ण है। आशा है की रंगबिरंगी तस्वीरें पुस्तक को भली-भाँति समझने में काफ़ी सहायक सिद्ध होगी।

पुस्तक बच्चों और माता-पिता के एक साथ बैठकर पड़ने के उद्देश्य से लिखी गयी है।

About the book:

In this book author has introduced main phenomenon and laws of physics to children in a simple way. Before starting the learning at school it is not sufficient to just read out this book to children for understanding various concepts in physics. For this, it is important the phenomena described in this book should be experimented and observed. We hope that the colourful pictures in the book will help in the understanding of the book.

This book has been written with the purpose of parents and children reading it together.

The sections cover major concepts in physics like sound, light, heat, speed, time, electricity and magnetism. The book is profusely illustrated with photographs of actual physical setups using dolls and other play materials.

The book was translated to Hindi from Russian by Ramindra Pal Singh and was published by Mir in 1987.

The Internet Archive Link

All credits to Guptaji

विषय सूची | Contents

ध्वनि | Sound

खिलौना वाइयलिन कैसे बना सकता है?

मचिस का टेलेफ़ोन

ध्वनि  कैसे तेज़ की जा सकती है?

ख़रगोश के कान लम्बे क्यूँ होते है?

अपनी आवाज़ कैसे देखी जा सकती है?

रिकार्ड से आवाज़  क्यों निकलती है?

प्रतिध्वनि

प्रश्न और प्रयोग | Questions and Experiments

प्रकाश | Light

सूरज की किरणों को एक जगह से दूसरी जगह कैसे पहुंचाया जा सकता है

दर्पण ओ का जादू

धूप में आमलेट कैसे बना सकते हैं

पुराने जमाने का कैमरा

प्रश्न और प्रयोग | Questions and Experiments

ऊष्मा | Heat

क्या हुआ कुछ गर्म होता है

बोतल से थर्मामीटर कैसे बनाया जा सकता है

माचिस के बिना आग कैसे जलाए जा सकती है

प्रश्न और प्रयोग | Questions and Experiments

द्रव गैस तथा ठोस पदार्थ | Solids, Liquids and Gases

बलून क्यों उड़ता है

हवा क्यों चलती है

द्रव पत्थर

बर्फ के खिलौने

बारिश क्यों होती है

प्रश्न और प्रयोग | Questions and Experiments

दिक् और गति | Time and Speed

तस्वीर के सैनिक से परेड कैसे कराई जा सकती है

कौन किधर जा रहा है

धूप की घड़ी

प्रश्न और प्रयोग | Questions and Experiments

जड़त्व  व जेट गति | Inertia and Jet Speed

आलसी  पहिए

मोहन जादूगर कैसे बन गया

 जेट  डिब्बा

जेट खिलौने

खिलौना जिसने अंतरिक्ष पर विजय प्राप्त की

जहाज को पाल की क्या आवश्यकता है

पुरानी चक्की

पतंग  क्यों उड़ती है?

प्रश्न और प्रयोग | Questions and Experiments

विद्युत तथा चुंबकत्व | Electricity and Magnetism

थोड़ी सी विद्युत कैसे पैदा की जा सकती है?

बिजली के बल्बों की माला

चुंबाकों के बारे में

जादू की कील 

प्रश्न और प्रयोग | Questions and Experiments

 

 

 

 

 

 

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