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]]>This is a book of folk tales and fables of the peoples of the Soviet Far North, the Chukchi Nentsi, Eskimos and others, in which all the characters are animals.

…

According to an ancient northern custom, people gathered and made merry after a lucky hunt, or in winter when snowstorms raged and they were forced to wait for calmer weather. This was the time for story-telling.The best story-tellers were always greatly respected, since these peoples had no written books. A story-teller had to know many fables and legends by heart. Besides, he had to tell a story well, to make it interesting. He also had to have a pleasant voice. The story-teller was treated to the best food. Many people gathered round to hear his tales. An Eskimo hunter named Kivagme was one of these fine story-tellers whose name has come down to us. Several of his tales have been included in this book.

…

The tundra and taiga have always been full of birds and beasts. This is why so many stories of the North are about animals and why the animals in them resemble humans in every way: they live in tents, ride in reindeer sleds and cross rivers in boats.These stories praise honesty, courage and common-sense and disapprove of idle talk, bragging and, especially, laziness. All were handed down from generation to generation.

This edition has been illustrated by Yevgeny Rachov, Peopleâ€™s Artist of the RSFSR, known for his many fine illustrations of folk tales and

childrenâ€™s books.

The book was translated by Fainna Solasko and the wonderful illustrations are by Illustrated by Y. Rachov. Malysh publishers first printed the book in 1981.

Many thanks to Guptaji for this book.

You can get the book here.

Contents

CONTENTS

THE LOST SONG. An Eskimo Story 5

HARE. A Mansi Story 11

TRY TO CATCH ME. An Eskimo Story told by Kivagme 14

WHY OWL HAS A SPOOKY VOICE. An Eskimo Story told by Kivagme 16

BEAR AND WIND. A Chukcha Story 19

SLY FOX. A Koryak Story 23

REINDEER AND BULLHEAD. A Chukcha Story 24

MAN AND DOG. A Nenets Story 26

VIXEN THE MERCHANT. A Chukcha Story 30

TRYING TO THINK. A Chukcha Story 32

MOUSE. A Nenets Story 35

RAVEN AND WOLF. A Chukcha Story 38

HOW VIXEN TRICKED SEAL. An Orochi Story 41

MIGHTY MOUSIE. An Eskimo Story 45

HOW GOPHER AND BEAR EXCHANGED HOUSES. A Chukcha Story 49

I WANT TO â€” DONâ€™T WANT TO GO. A Chukcha Story 52

MOUSE THE BRAGGART. An Eskimo Story told by Kivagme 57

FOX CUB AND BULLHEAD. An Eskimo Story 58

MOUSE AND FOX. A Chukcha Story 60

BEAR AND CHIPMUNK. A Nivkh Story 62

HOW MOUSE FROZE FAST. A Chukcha Story 65

FOXY VIXEN. A Koryak Story 68

BRAVE VUVYLTU. An Eskimo Story told by Kivagme 72

PANCAKES. A Nenets Story 74

WHY HARE HAS LONG EARS. A Mansi Story 76

BEAR AND VIXEN. A Nanai Story 78

WHAT A FRIEND! An Eskimo Story told by Kivagme 80

WILY TEACHES CRAFTY A LESSON. An Eskimo Story told by Kivagme 82

BRAVE BEAR. A Nenets Story 84

BAT. An Evenk Story 86

WHAT’LL I BE? An Eskimo Story told by Kivagme 88

VIXEN, BIRDIE AND RAVEN. A Nenets Story 91

KUTKHA THE RAVEN. An Itelmen Story 94

POOR FROG. A Nanai Story 96

YOU’RE LUCKIER THAN WE ARE. An Eskimo Story told by Kivagme 99

FOX CUB AND ECHO. An Eskimo Story told by Kivagme 101

WHALE AND REINDEER. A Chukcha Story 105

WOLF, RAVEN AND MOUNTAIN GOAT, A Chukcha Story 106

WOLVERINE AND VIXEN. An Evenk Story 1-09

FOX AND THE TEALS. An Eskimo Story 113

FRIENDSHIP BUILDS STRENGTH 116

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In this post we will see a story collection for children. *A Mountain Of Gems: Fairy Tales of the Peoples of the Soviet Land*.

Many different peoples live in this huge country, each with their own habits and traditions, their own language. The Uzbek language, for instance, bears as little resemblance to the Russian or, say, the Moldavian as the Arabic does to the English or the Chinese.

And all of the peoples of the Soviet Union have their own fairy tales.

The Chukchi and Nenets tales as well as the tales of other peoples of Russian North transport us into the snowy tundra, a realm of fierce frosts and howling blizzards, where the dog and the reindeer are manâ€™s best friends. In the tales of the peoples of Central Asia caravans of camels plod slowly over the scorching sands, and the ceaseless murmur of water comes from the numerous canals that feed the ever thirsty fields. Other scenes and images rise up before us when we read Russian fairy tales. The stout-hearted young heroes of these tales gallop on horseback over hills and dales which are green in summer anti carpeted with snow in winter, while their lovely tsarevnas sit patiently waiting for them in their log towers with windows of mica.

Do you know why I have translated all these fairy cates for you? It was because I enjoyed reading them so much.

Open the book, and you will find yourselves in a world of magic. Together with Ivan the Peasant’s Son you will cross words with Chudo-Yudo, the fire-breathing monster, follow Pokati-Goioshek, or Pea-Roll Along, into the underground kingdom and return from there on the back of an eagle or marvel at the cleverness of Zarniyar who outwitted a cruel Shah, be filled with admiration for Boroldoi-Merger the brave hunter of the Altai mountains who risked the Life of his own

son in order to save his people, delight in the resourcefulness of a simple weaver who surpassed in wisdom the wisest councillors of the Tsar.And I know that when you have met them, these and other characters in this book, you will grow to love them, and they will become your good and faithful friends.

The book was translated by Irina Zhelenova and was illustrated by Vladimir Minayev. The book was first published in 1962, with second printing by Raduga in 1983.

Many. many thanks to Guptaji for this Mountain of Gems.

You can get the book here.

PDF | 42.5 M | Color | OCR | 231 Pages

CONTENTS

FROM THE TRANSLATOR 7

THE FROG TSAREVNA. A Russian Fairy Tale 9

AXE PORRIDGE. A Russian Fairy Tale 16

CHESTNUT GREY. A Russian Fairy Tale 18

IVAN THE PEASANT’S SON AND THE THREE CHUDO-YUDOS. A Russian Fairy Tale 24

A TRIAL LIKE NO OTHER. A Russian Fairy Tale 34

PEA-ROLL ALONG. A Ukrainian Fairy Tale 37

GOOD AND EVIL. A Ukrainian Fairy Tale 50

THE WOLF, THE DOG AND THE CAT. A Ukrainian Fairy Tale 57

HOW A MUZHIK DINED WITH A LORD. A Ukrainian Fairy Tale 60

THE MAGIC FIDDLE. A Byelorussian Fairy Tale 63

WHY THE BADGER AND THE FOX LIVE IN HOLES. A Byelorussian Fairy Tale 66

HOW VASIL VANQUISHED THE DRAGON. A Byelorussian Fairy Tale 70

PILIPKA. A Byelorussian Fairy Tale 75

OLD FROST AND YOUNG FROST. A Lithuanian Fairy Tale 82

HOW A LORD TURNED INTO A HORSE. A Latvian Fairy Tale 85

TO EACH HIS DESERTS. An Estonian Fairy Tale 88

HIYSI’S MILLSTONE. A Karelian Fairy Tale 91

THE THREE BROTHERS AND THE POT OF GOLD. A Moldavian Fairy Tale 98

BASIL, FET-FRUMOS AND ILANA COSINZANA, SISTER OF THE SUN. A Moldavian Fairy Tale 101

THE STORY OF ZARNIYAR WHO HAD ALL HER WITS ABOUT HER. An Azerbaijan Fairy Tale 113

SHEIDULLAH THE LOAFER. An Azerbaijan Fairy Tate 117

ANAIT. An Armenian Fairy Tale 120

THE TSAR AND THE WEAVER. An Armenian Fairy Tale 133

DEER-CHILD AND YELENA THE BEAUTIFUL. A Georgian Fairy Tale 136

THE LION AND THE HARE. A Georgian Fairy Tale 149

A LESSON IN WISDOM. A Georgian Fairy Tale 151

ALTYN-SAKA THE GOLDEN KNUCKLEBONE. A Bashkir Fairy Tale 153

TSARKIN KHAN AND THE ARCHER. A Kalmyk Fairy Tale 161

A MOUNTAIN OF GEMS. A Turkmen Fairy Title 184

THE CLEVER BROTHERS. An Usbek Fairy Tale 188

THE GREEDY KAZI. A Tajik Fairy Tale 193

BOROLDOI-MERGEN AND HIS BRAVE SON. A Fairy Tale of the Altai 198

WHICH WAS THE BIGGEST? A Kirghiz Fairy Tale 202

ALDAR-KOSE AND SHIGAI-BAI. A Kazaakh Fairy Tale 206

THE FERN GIRL. A Yakut Fairy Tale 213

THE GOLDEN CUP. A Buryat Fairy Tale 222

KOTURA, LORD OF THE WINDS, A Nenets Fairy Tale 227

THE GIRL AND THE MOON MAN. A Chukchi Fairy Tale 235

Man’s life on Earth is bound up fast with animals, birds, and fish t insects and beasts, octopi and worms.

But over the millennia Man’s relationships with animals have undergone many changes. Animals supplied Man with food and clothes inspired him with fear and gave him joy, originated customs and beliefs that sometimes influenced the entire mode of life of the given society, they have been enemies, friends and tutors.

God-animals were replaced by worker-animals, wild animals were replaced by domestic ones as the main source of meat. The importance of some animals was enhanced and of other diminished. And, naturally, throughout Man’s history he has brought influence to bear on the animal world â€” directly or indirectly, consciously or unconsciously.

One book is not really enough to tell about the many different relationships between Man and animals. Nor have I tried to embrace the subject in its entirety. I wrote this hook for children, striving, above all, to make them understand how important it is to know, love and protect animals.

The book is full of photos and illustrations of animals from varied cultures and geographical regions.

There is a Hindi translation of the book. I don’t if it was translated to other Indian languages also.

The book was traslated from the Russian by Raissa Bobrova. The design of the book is by B. P. Kishtymov and I. V. Borisova. The book was first published by Raduga in 1984 and was reprinted in 1988.

All credits to Guptaji for this book.

You can get the book here.

PDF | 85.7 MB | OCR | 339 Pages | Color |

Contents

The book has seven chapters tracing the history of human and animal relations from antiquity to present.

**1. MAN WORSHIPS AND CURSES**

Eyewitness Accounts 11

Dancing Is a Serious Business 14

Donâ€™t Be Angry That I Killed You! 17

Birds or Animals? 19

The Divine Apis, the Sa cred Scarab and the â€śKeeper of the Horizon” 25

Sacred Cows and the â€śOwner of the White Elephant” 27

Victims and Oracles 31

Love and Hatred 36

Animal-People and Animal-Devils 39

The Power of Words or a Curse on Eels 40

Judges, Defendants, Lawyers 44

TO SUM UP THE PREVIOUS CHAPTER AND INTRODUCE THE NEXT ONE 47

**2. MAN LEARNS AND STUDIES **

A Great Greek and a Roman Patrician 51

Two Millennia 55

Life and Death of Konrad Gesner 59

Carl Linnaeus’s *System of Nature* 65

The Theory of the Great but Unlucky Man 74

Facts, Nothing but Facts and God! 78

Darwinism and Zoogeography 84

The Battle of Oxford 87

*The Life of Animals* and Its Author 92

TO SUM UP THE PREVIOUS CHAPTER AND INTRODUCE THE NEXT ONE 100

**3. MAN FINDS AND DISCOVERS **

The Story of an Unfinished List 105

The Okapi Makes Zoological History 109

The Mammoth Boar, the Black Tapir, the Giant Bull and the Two Discoveries of Hans Schomburgk 115

More â€śKinsmenâ€ť Are Discovered 122

How Many Different Cats Are There on Earth? 130

Three Unexpected Discoveries Made in a Shop, a Cinema and a Storeroom 133

Dragons Are Rea] After All! 137

Ocean Dwellers 142

The Discovery of the Century 148

TO SUM UP THE PREVIOUS CHAPTER AND INTRODUCE THE NEXT ONE 153

**4. MAN BELIEVES, DOUBTS AND SEEKS **

Does The Tatielwurm Exist? 159

The Mystery of Rivers and Lakes 160

The Mystery of Loch Ness 167

The Mystery of the Seas and Oceans (â€śThe Case of the Sea Serpent) 169

TO SUM UP THE PREVIOUS CHAPTER AND INTRODUCE THE NEXT ONE 182

**5. MAN KILLS AND DESTROYS **

The Kansas Tragedy 187

Predators Appeal for Help 196

Giants Need to Be Saved 200

Our â€śKinsmen” Are in Danger 205

â€śThe Fur Fever” 208

In Only Twenty-Seven Years 213

Cranes Under Escort 216

TO SUM UP THE PREVIOUS CHAPTER AND INTRODUCE THE NEXT ONE 221

**6. MAN PROTECTS AND SAVES **

Once in 1919 225

What Is a Nature Preserve and What Is Its Purpose? 227

The â€śDuck” Flies to Africa 235

Perhaps a Zoo as Well? 246

Bisons in Moscow Environs 253

Predators â€” Harmful or Otherwise? 259

Problems Galore 268

Biological, Not Chemical Protection 276

TO SUM UP THE PREVIOUS CHAPTER AND INTRODUCE THE NEXT ONE, 295

**7 MAN STUDIES AND LEARNS **

The Birth of a New Science 301

â€śSoothsayers” 304

The â€śParadox of the Dolphin” and Other Paradoxes 310

On the Ground and Beneath It 315

Birds or Insects? 318

Again Birds or Insects 322

Echolocators 330

“Chemists” and Others 333

The book was translated from the Russian by Marina Konyaeva and was first puublished byÂ PEACE PUBLISHERS MOSCOW in 1963.

All credits to original uploader.

You can get the book here.

CONTENTS

Introduction 9

Chapter I.

Theory of Stress 13

1. State of Stress in a Body 13

2. Differential Equations of Equilibrium 16

3. Stresses on Areas Inclined to the Co-ordinate Planes. Surface Conditions 22

4. Analysis of the State of Stress at a Given Point in Principal Areas and Principal Stresses 25

5. Stress Distribution at a Given Point. Cauchy’s Stress Surface; Invariants of the Stress Tensor. Lame’s Ellipsoid 29

6. Maximum Shearing Stresses 35

7. Octahedral Areas and Octahedral Stresses 39

8. Spherical Tensor and Stress Deviator 39

9. Generalisation of the Law of Reciprocity of Stresses. Examples 42

Chapter II.

Geometrical Theory of Strain 45

10. Displacement Components and Strain Components, and Relation Between Them 45

11. Compatibility Equations 53

12. Tensor Character of the Strain at a Given Point in a Body 58

13. Dilatational Strain. Invariants of the Strain Tensor 6

14. Strain Deviator and Its Invariants 65

15. Finite Strain 67

Chapter III.

Generalised Hooke’s Law 72

16. General 72

17. Strains Expressed in Terms of Stresses 75

18. Stresses Expressed in Terms of Strains 78

19. Work Done by Elastic Forces in a Solid 82

20. Potential of Elastic Forces 83

21. Stress-strain Relations; Hypothesis of the Natural State of a Body 84

22. Elastic Constants; Reduction in Their Number Due to the Existence of the Potential of Elastic Forces 88

23. Isotropic Body 89

.

,

Chapter IV.

Solution of the Elasticity Problem in Terms of Displacements 96

24. Compendium of Basic Equations of the Theory of Elasticity 96

25. Lame’s Equations 99

26. Longitudinal and Transverse Vibrations in an Unbounded Elastic Medium 102

27. General Solution of the Equation of Vibrations 106

28. Longitudinal Vibrations of a Bar. Fourier’s Method 109

Chapter V.

Solution of the Elasticity Problem in Terms of Stresses 115

29. The Simplest Problems 115

30. Torsion of a Circular Bar 116

31. Saint-Venant’s Principle 118

32. The Problem of Torsion of a Circular Bar (Continued) 122

33. Pure Bending of a Prismatical Bar 126

34. Prism Stretched by Its Own Weight 132

35. Uniqueness of Solution of Elasticity Equations 136

36. Beltrami-Michell Equations 139

37. Three Kinds of Problems of the Theory of Elasticity. Uniqueness Theorem 142

Chapter VI.

Plane Problem in Cartesian Co-ordinates 147

38. Plane Strain 147

39. Generalised Plane Stress. Maurice Levy’s Equation. Stress Function 151

40. Solution of the Plane Problem by Means of Polynomials 162

41. Bending of a Cantilever 163

42. Beam on Two Supports 171

43. Triangular and Rectangular Retaining Walls (M. Levy’s Solutions) 177

44. Bending of a Rectangular Strip; Filon’s and Ribiere’s Solutions 181

45. One Modification of Filon’s Method 189

46. Strip of Infinite Length 196

Chapter VII.

Plane Problem in Polar Co-ordinates 200

47. General Equations of the Plane Problem in Polar Co-ordinates 200

48. Problems in Which Stresses Are Independent of the Polar Angle 205

49. Effect of a Concentrated Force (Flamant-Boussinesq Problem) 211

50. Wedge Loaded at the Vertex 217

51. General Solution of the Plane Problem in Polar Co-ordinates 222

Chapter VIII.

Torsion of Prismatical Bars and Bending 231

52. Torsion of Prismatical Bars 231

53. Saint-Venant’s Method. Special Cases 238

54. Solution of the Torsion Problem in Terms of Stresses. Prandtl’s Analogy 250

55. Case of Transverse Bending 258

Chapter IX.

More General Methods of Solving Elasticity Problems 265

56. General Solution of Differential Equations of Equilibrium in Terms of Stresses. Stress Functions 265

57. Equations of Equilibrium in Cylindrical Co-ordinates. Their General Solution 270

58. Harmonic and Biharmomc Functions 273

59. Biharmonic Equation 278

60. Reduction of Lame’s and Beltrami’s Equations to Biharmonic Equations 282

61. Boussinesq’s Method; Application of Harmonic Functions to Seeking of Particular Solutions of Lame’s Equations 284

62. Effect of a Load on a Medium Bounded by a Plane (Boussinesq’s Problem) 290

63. Effect of a Concentrated Force Normal to the Boundary and Applied at the Origin 294

64. Solution of the Plane Problem of Elasticity by Means of Functions of a Complex Variable 301

65. Filon’s Method 303

66. Wave Equations 310

67. Some Particular Solutions of the Wave Equation 313

Chapter X.

Bending of a Plate 317

68. General 317

69. Basic Equations of Bending and Torsion of a Plate 319

70. Analysis of the Results Obtained 323

71. Boundary Conditions for a Plate 328

72. Elliptic Plate Clamped at the Edge 331

73. Rectangular Plate. Navier’s Solution 333

74. Rectangular Plate. Levy’s Solution 339

75. Circular Plate 344

76. Membrane Analogy. Marcus’s Method 347

Chapter XI.

Variational Methods of the Theory of Elasticity 350

77. Variational Principles of the Theory of Elasticity. Fundamental Integral Identity 350

78. Lagrange’s Variational Equation 352

79. Ritz-Timoshenko Method 358

80. Castigliano’s Variational Equation 364

81. Application of Castigliano’s Variational Equation Problem of to the Torsion of a Prismatical Rod 368

82. First Problem of the Theory Elasticity; Second Theorem of Minimum Energy 373

83. Approximate Method Based on Variational Equation (11.61) 375

84. Lame’s Problem for an Elastic Rectangular Prism 379

References 387

Name Index 388

Subject Index 390

The book is intended for those preparing for university entrance examinations in physics. The contents and sequence of topics are in keeping with the requirements for such examinations. The few sections beyond the entrance examination programme are marked by circles. In view of the introduction of the elements of higher mathematics to the high-school curriculum, some problems have also been illustrated using differential calculus. The author has endeavoured to present the basic principles of school physics in a compact form to help the candidates revise the entire course in the shortest possible time. All sections have been illustrated with problems to give a better understanding of the subject. Each problem and its solution is followed by one or more exercises on the same topic, the exercises corresponding to problems that have been solved in the text are assigned the same number.Those intending to use this book independently are advised to attempt the exercises after going through the theoretical part. The relevant solved problems should be consulted if difficulties are encountered while solving the exercises. After this, the exercise should be tried again, and if there is more than one exercise bearing the same number, another exercise (preferably the last one) should be tackled. In most cases, the last exercises in a series are the most difficult.

The book was translated from Russian by Natalia Wadhwa and was first published in 1987.

PDF | OCR | 13.1 MB

All credits to SiddharthÂ for scanning and posting this book.

You can get the book here (fc link) or here (IA link)

Contents

Foreword

From the Preface to the Second Russian Edition

INTRODUCTION

1.1. SI System of Units

1.2. Vectors. Some Mathematical Operations on Vectors

1.3. Projections of Points and Vectors onto an Axis

1.4. General Methodical Hints to the Solution of Problems

1. MECHANICS

1.1. Basic Concepts

A. Kinematics

1.2. Kinematics of Translatory Motion

1.3. Uniform Rectilinear Motion. Velocity. Graphs of Velocity and Path Length in Uniform Motion

1.4. Nonuniform Motion. Average and Instantaneous Velocities. Acceleration

1.5. Uniformly Variable Motion. Graphs of Velocity and Path Length in Uniformly Variable Motion

Problems with Solutions

Exercises

B. Dynamics of Translatory Motion

1.6. Force

1.7. Newton’s First Law. Inertial and Noninertial Reference Systems

1.8. Newton’s Second Law. Momentum of a Body

1.9. Newton’s Third Law

1.10. Principle of Independence of Action

1.11. Addition of Forces Acting at an Angle

1.12. Resolution of a Force into Two Components at an Angle to Each Other

1.13. Law of Momentum Conservation

1.14. Idea of Reaction Propulsion

1.15. Friction. Coefficient of Friction

1.16. Elastic Force. Hooke’s Law

1.17. Law of Universal Gravitation

1.18. Force of Gravity. Free Fall of Bodies

1.19. Weight of a Body. Weighing

1.20. Weightlessness

Problems with Solutions

Exercises

1.21. Work and Power

1.22. Energy. Kinetic and Potential Energies

1.23. Law of Energy Conservation

Problems with Solutions

Exercises

C. Kinematics and Dynamics of Rotational Motion of a Rigid Body

1.24. Uniform Rotational Motion. Angular Velocity. Linear Velocity

1.25. Centripetal Acceleration

1.26. Weight of a Body Considering the Rotation of the Earth

1.27. Reasons Behind the Emergence of Weightlessness in Artificial Satellites. Orbital Velocity

Problems with Solutions

Exercises

D. Statics

1.28. Equilibrium of a Nonrotating Body. Equilibrium Conditions for a Body on an Inclined Plane

Problems with Solutions

Exercises

1.29. Moment of Force

1.30. Addition of Parallel Forces. A Couple

1.31. Equilibrium of a Body with a Fixed Rotational Axis (Law of Torques)

1.32. Equilibrium of a Rigid Body in the General Case

Problems with Solutions

Exercises

1.33. Types of Equilibrium

1.34. Centre of Mass of a Body

1.35. Determination of the Centre of Mass for Bodies of Various Shapes

Problems with Solutions

Exercises

2. FLUIDS

2.1. Pressure

2.2. Pascal’s Law

2.3. Hydraulic Press

2.4. Pressure of a Fluid on the Bottom and Walls of a Vessel. Law of Communicating Vessels

2.5. Atmospheric Pressure. Barometers

2.6. Archimedean Principle

Problems with Solutions

Exercises

3. MOLECULAR PHYSICS. THERMAL PHENOMENA

A. Molecular Physics

3.1. Basic Concepts of Molecular-Kinetic Theory

3.2. Brownian Movement. Gas Pressure

3.3. Diffusion in Gases, Liquids, and Solids

3.4. Motion of Molecules in Gases, Liquids, and Solids

3.5. Intermolecular Interaction

B. Thermal Phenomena

3.6. Internal Energy of a Body

3.7. Law of Conservation and Transformation of Energy. First Law of Thermodynamics

3.8. Temperature Gradient. Thermodynamic Temperature Scale. Absolute Zero

3.9. Heat Capacity

3.10. Experimental Determination of Specific Heat of a Substance

3.11. Heat of Combustion of a Fuel

3.12. Efficiency of a Heat Engine

3.13. Phase of a Substance. Fusion. Latent Heat of Fusion

3.14. Evaporation. Condensation. Vaporization and Boiling. Latent Heat of Vaporization

Problems with Solutions

Exercises

3.15. Temperature Coefficients of Linear and Cubic Expansion

Problems with Solutions

Exercises

C. Gas Laws

3.16. Isobaric Process. Charles’ Law

3.17. Isothermal Process. Boyle’s Law. Dalton’s Law

3.18. Isochoric Process. Gay-Lussac’s Law

3.19. Adiabatic Process

3.20. The Boyle-Charles Generalized Law. Equation of State for an Ideal Gas

3.21. The Clapeyron-Mendeleev Equation. Avogadro’s Law

3.22. Ideal Gas. Physical Meaning of Thermodynamic Temperature

3.23. Work Done by a Gas During Expansion

Problems with Solutions

Exercises

3.24. Saturated and Unsaturated Vapours. Temperature Dependence of Saturation Vapour Pressure

3.25. Absolute Humidity. Relative Humidity

3.26. Instruments for Determining Humidity

Problems with Solutions

Exercises

4. FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRODYNAMICS

A. Electrostatics

4.1. Law of Electric Charge Conservation. Electric Field. Coulomb’s Law. Effect of Medium on the Force of Interaction of Charges

4.2. Charge Equilibrium in Metals. Electrostatic Induction

4.3. Electroscope

4.4. Electric Field Strength. Electric Field Lines

4.5. Work Done on a Charge by the Forces of Electrostatic Field. Potential

4.6. Relation Between Potential and Field Strength for a Uniform Electric Field

4.7. Capacitance

4.8. Capacitors. Energy of a Charged Capacitor

Problems with Solutions

Exercises

B. Direct Current

4.9. Electric Current. Current Intensity. Electromotive Force

4.10. Ohm’s Law for a Subcircuit. Resistance of Conductors

4.11. Temperature Dependence of Resistance. Semiconductors

4.12. Series Connection of Conductors

4.13. Parallel Connection of Conductors

4.14. Rheostats

4.15. Current Sources. Ohm’s Law for a Closed Circuit

4.16. Parallel and Series Connection of Current Sources

4.17. Direct Current Power. Joule’s Law

Problems with Solutions

Exercises

4.18. Electrolysis

4.19. Faraday’s Laws of Electrolysis

Problems with Solutions

Exercises

4.20. Electric Current in Gases

4.21. Electron and Ion Beams, Their Properties and Application

4.22. Thermionic Emission.’ Electron Work Function

Problems with Solutions

Exercises

C. Magnetic Phenomena

4.23. Interaction of Currents. Magnetic Field. Magnetic Induction. Magnetic Field Lines

4.24. Force Acting on a Current-Carrying Conductor in a Magnetic Field. Magnetic Forces

4.25. Permeability of a Medium. Magnetic Field Strength

4.26. Forces of Interaction Between Parallel Current-Carrying Conductors

4.27. Magnetic Flux

4.28. Ammeter and Voltmeter

D. Electromagnetic Phenomena

4.29. Electromagnetic Induction

4.30. Induced Electromotive Force

4.31. Lenz’s Law

4.32. Self-Induction. Inductance

Problems with Solutions

Exercises

5. OSCILLATIONS AND WAVES

5.1. Oscillatory Motion. Amplitude, Period, and Frequency of Oscillations

5.2. Harmonic Oscillations. Phase of Oscillation

5.3. Pendulum. Period of Oscillations of a Mathematical Pendulum

5.4. Free and Forced Oscillations. Resonance

5.5. Waves. Velocity and Wavelength

5.6. Sonic Waves

Problems with Solutions

Exercises

5.7. Electromagnetic Oscillations and Waves

5.8. Oscillatory Circuit

Problems with Solutions

Exercises

5.9. Alternating Current. A.C. Generator

5.10. Period and Frequency of Alternating Current. Effective Current and Voltage

5.11. Transmission and Distribution of Electric Energy

5.12. Transformer

5.13. D.C. Generator

Problems with Solutions

Exercises

5.14. Electron Tubes (Valves)

5.15. Diode as a Rectifier of Alternating Current

5.16. Cathode-Ray Tube

5.17. Electron Tubes as Generators and Amplifiers

5.18. Open Oscillatory Circuit. Emission and Reception of Electromagnetic Waves

5.19. Scale of Electromagnetic Waves

Problem with Solution

Exercise

6. OPTICS

6.1. Light Sources. Propagation of Light in a Straight Line

6.2. Velocity of Light. Michelson’s Experiment

A. Photometry

6.3. Luminous Flux. Luminous Intensity

6.4. Illuminance (Illumination Intensity)

6.5. Comparison of Luminous Intensity of Different Sources. Photometers

Problems with Solutions

Exercises

B. Geometrical Optics

6.6. Law of Reflection of Light. Construction of Image Formed by a Plane Mirror

6.7. Construction of Image Formed by a Spherical Mirror. Spherical Aberration

Problems with Solutions

Exercises

6.8. Laws of Refraction of Light. Refractive Index

6.9. Total Internal Reflection. Critical Angle

6.10. Ray Path in a Plane-Parallel Plate. Ray Path in a Prism

6.11. Converging and Diverging Lenses

6.12. Lens Formula. Lens Power

6.13. Image Formation by a Lens

Problems with Solutions

Exercises

C. Optical Instruments

6.14. Searchlight. Projection Lantern

6.15. Photographic Camera

6.16. Magnifying Glass. Human Eye as an Optical Instrument

6.17. Accommodation of Eye. Myopia and Hyperopia. Spectacles

Problems with Solutions

Exercises

D. Composition of Light. Invisible Rays

6.18. Dispersion of Light. Spectrum. Spectroscope

6.19. Infrared and Ultraviolet Radiation

6.20. Emission and Absorption Spectra. Fraunhofer Lines. Spectral Analysis

6.21. On the Wave and Quantum Nature of Light

6.22. Interference of Light

6.23. Diffraction of Light

6.24. Photoelectric Effect

6.25. Photocells and Their Application

6.26. Effects of Light

Problems with Solutions

Exercise

7. STRUCTURE OF THE ATOM 492

7.1. Structure of the Atom and Its Energy

7.2. Atomic Nucleus

7.3. Radioactivity

7.4. Uranium Nuclear Fission. Chain Reaction

7.5. Binding Energy of Atomic Nucleus

Problem with Solution

Exercise

Graphical Solutions to Exercises

Appendices

]]>The book is actually a compilation of four children’s stories

*Forest Homes – Translated by Fainna Glagoleva *

*Red Hill – Translated by Olga Shartse*

*Ant Hurries Home – Translated by Fainna GlagolevaÂ *

*The First Hunt – Translated by Ronald Vroon*

Lot of wonderful illustrations through the book done by Mai Miturich. The book was first published by Raduga Publishers in 1988.

All credits to Guptaji.

You can get the book here.

]]>*The book being offered to the reader is a logical continuation of the author’s three-volume general course of physics. Everything possible has been done to avoid repenting what has been set out in the three-volume course. Particularly. the experiments underlying the advancing of physical ideas are not treated, and some of the results obtained are not discussed.*

*The book has been conceived as a training aid for students of non- theoretical specialities of higher educational institutions. I had in mind readers who would like to grasp the main ideas and methods of theoretical physics without delving into the details that are of interest only for a specialist. This book will be helpful for physics instructors at higher schools, and also for everyone interested in the subject but having no time to become acquainted with it (or re- store it in his memory) according to fundamental manuals.*

The books were translated from the Russian by G. Leib and was first published in 1982.

We have added new covers to existing pdfs. All other credits to original uploaders. Thanks to commentators for points the libgen links.

Fundamentals of Theoretical Physics Vol 1

Fundamentals of Theoretical Physics Vol 2

Contents Vol 1

Part One. Mechanics 11 Chapter I. The Variational Principle in Mechanics 11 1. Introduction 11 2. Constraints 13 3. Equations of Motion in Cartesian Coordinates 16 4. Lagrangeâ€™s Equations in Generalized Coordinates 19 5. The’ Lagrangian and Energy 24 6. Examples of Compiling Lagrangeâ€™s Equations 28 7. Principle of Least Action 33 Chapter II. Conservation Laws 36 8. Energy Conservation 36 9. Momentum Conservation 37 10. Angular Momentum Conservation 39 Chapter III. Selected Problems in Mechanics 41 11. Motion of a Particle in a Central Force Field 41 12. Two-Body Problem 45 13. Elastic Collisions of Particles 49 14. Particle Scattering 53 15. Motion in Non-Inertial Reference Frames 57 Chapter IV. Small-Amplitude Oscillations 64 16. Free Oscillations of a System Without Friction 64 17. Damped Oscillations 66 18. Forced Oscillations 70 8 CONTENTS 19. Oscillations of a System with Many Degrees of Freedom 72 20. Coupled Pendulums 77 Chapter V. Mechanics of a Rigid Body 82 21. Kinematics of a Rigid Body 82 22. The Euler Angles 85 23. The Inertia Tensor 88 24. Angular Momentum of a Rigid Body 95 25. Free Axes of Rotation 99 26. Equation of Motion of a Rigid Body 101 27. Eulerâ€™s Equations 105 28. Free Symmetric Top 107 29. Symmetric Top in a Homogeneous Gravitational Field 111 Chapter VI. Canonical Equations 115 30. Hamiltonâ€™s Equations 115 31. Poisson Brackets 119, 32. The Hamilton- Jacobi Equation 121 Chapter VII. The Special Theory of Relativity 125 33. The Principle of Relativity 125 34. Interval 127 35. Lorentz Transformations 130 36. Four-Dimensional Velocity and Acceleration 134 37. Relativistic Dynamics 136 38. Momentum and Energy of a Particle 139 39. Action for a Relativistic Particle 143 40. Energy-Momentum Tensor 147 Part Two. Electrodynamics 157 Chapter VIII. Electrostatics 157 41. Electrostatic Field in a Vacuum 157 42. Poissonâ€™s Equation 159 43. Expansion of a Field in Multipoles 161 44. Field in Dielectrics 166 45. Description of the Field in Dielectrics 170 46. Field in Anisotropic Dielectrics 175 Chapter IX. Magnetostatics 177 47. Stationary Magnetic Field in a Vacuum 177 48. Poisson’s Equation for the Vector Potential 179 49. Field of Solenoid 182 50. The Biot-Savart Law 186 51. Magnetic Moment 188 52. Field in Magnetics 194 Chapter X. Time-Varying Electromagnetic Field 199 53. Law of Electromagnetic Induction 199 CONTENTS 9 â€™ 54. Displacement Current 200, 55. Maxwellâ€™s Equations 201 56. Potentials of Electromagnetic Field 203 57. Dâ€™Alembertâ€™s Equation 207 58. Density and Flux of Electromagnetic Field Energy 208 59. Momentum of Electromagnetic Field 211 Chapter XI. Equations of Electrodynamics in the Four-Dimensional Form 216 60. Four-Potential 216 61. Electromagnetic Field Tensor 219 62. Field Transformation Formulas 222 63. Field Invariants 225 64. Maxwellâ€™s Equations in the Four-Dimensional Form 228 65. Equation of Motion of a Particle in a Field 230 Chapter XII. The Variational Principle in Electrodynamics 232 66. Action for a Charged Particle in an Electromagnetic Field 232 67. Action for an Electromagnetic Field 234 68. Derivation of Maxwellâ€™s Equations from the Principle of Least Action 237 69. Energy-Momentum Tensor of an Electromagnetic Field 239 70. A Charged Particle in nil Electromagnetic Field 244 Chapter XIII. Electromagnetic Waves 248 71. The Wave Equation 248 72. A Plane Electromagnetic Wave in a Homogeneous and Isotropic Medium 250 73. A Monochromatic Plane Wave 255 74. A Plane Monochromatic Wave in a Conducting Medium 260 75. Non-Monochromatic Waves 265 Chapter XIV. Radiation of Electromagnetic Waves 269 76. Retarded Potentials 269 77. Field of a Uniformly Moving Charge 272 78. Field of an Arbitrarily Moving Charge 276 79. Field Produced by a System of Charges at Great Distances 288 80. Dipole Radiation 288 81. Magnetic Dipole and Quadrupole Radiations 291 Appendices 297 I. Lagrangeâ€™s Equations for a Holonomic System with Ideal Xon- Stationarv Constraints 297 II. Eulerâ€™s Theorem for Homogeneous Functions 299 III. Some Information from the Calculus of Variations 300 IV. Conics 309 V. Linear Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients 313 VI. Vectors 316 VII. Matrices 330 VIII. Determinants 338 IX. Quadratic Forms 347 10 CONTENTS X. Tensors 355 XI. Basic Concepts of Vector Analysis 370 XII. Four-Dimensional Vectors and Tensors i Space 393 XIII. The Dirac Delta Function 412 XIV. The Fourier Series and Integral 413 Index 419

Contents Volume 2

Chapter I. Foundations of Quantum Mechanics 9 1. Introduction 9 2. State 10 3. The Superposition Principle 12 4. The Physical Meaning of the Psi-Function 14 5. The Schrodinger Equation 16 6. Probability Flux Density 20 Chapter II. Mathematical Tools of Quantum Mechanics 23 7. Fundamental Postulates . 23 8. Linear Operators 27 9. Matrix Representation of Operators 31 10. The Algebra of Operators 38 11. The Uncertainty Relation 45 12. The Continuous Spectrum 48 13. Dirac Notation 51 14. Transformation of Functions and Operators from One Representa- tion to Another 55 Chapter III. Eigenvalues and Eigenfunctions of Physical Quantities 63 15. Operators of Physical Quantities 63 16. Rules for Commutation of Operators of Physical Quantities … 67 17. Eigenfunctions of the Coordinate and Momentum Operators … 71 18. Momentum and Energy Represonlal ions 74 19. Eigenvalues and Eigenfunctions of the Angular Momentum Operator 78 20. Parity 81 Chapter IV. Time Dependence of Physical Quantities 83 21. The Time Derivative of an Operator 83 22. Time Dependence of Matrix Elements 86 Chapter V. Motion of a Particle in Force Fields 89 23. A Particle in a Central Force Field 89 24. An Electron in a Coulomb Field. The Hydrogen Atom 94 25. The Harmonic Oscillator 106 26. Solution of the Harmonic Oscillator Problem in the Matrix Form 109 27. Annihilation and Creation Operators 116 CONTENTS 7 Chapter VI. Perturbation Theory 123 28. Introduction 123 29. Time-Independent Perturbations 123 30. Case of Two Close Levels 132 31. Degenerate Case 136 32. Examples of Application of the Stationary Perturbation Theory 141 33. Time-Dependent Perturbations 148 34. Perturbations Varying Harmonically with Time 156 35. Transitions in a Continuous Spectrum 163 36. Potential Energy as a Perturbation 164 Chapter VII. The Quasiclassical Approximation 169 37. The Classical Limit 169 38. Boundary Conditions at a Turning Point 174 39. Bohr-Sommerfeld Quantization Rule 184 40. Penetration of a Potential Barrier 188 Chapter VIII. Semiempirical Theory of Particles with Spin 192 41. Psi-Function of a Particle with Spin 192 42. Spin Operators 194 43. Eigenvalues and Eigenfunctions of Spin Operators 202 44. Spinors 205 Chapter IX. Systems Consisting of Identical Particles 214 45. Principle of Indistinguishability of Identical Particles 214 46. Psi-Functions for Systems of Particles. The Pauli Principle . . . 216 47. Summation of Angular Momenta 222 48. Psi-Function of System of Two Particles Having a Spin of 1/2 . . 225 49. Exchange Interaction 229 50. Second Quantization 233 51. Second Quantization Applied to Bosons 235 52. Second Quantization Applied to Fermions 250 Chapter X. Atoms and Molecules 258 53. Methods of Calculating Atomic Systems . 258 54. The Helium Atom f Ai 259 55. The Variation Method 263 56. The Method of the Self-Consistent Field 268 57. The Thomas-Fcrmi Method 275 58. The Zeeman Effect 278 59. The Theory of Molecules in the Adiabatic Approximation . . . 281 60. The Hydrogen Molecule 285 Chapter XI. Radiation Theory â€˘ 291 / i u^ir^u 61. Quantization of an Electromagnetic Field L â€˘ 291 62. Interaction of an Electromagnetic Field with a Charged Particle 301 â– 63. One-Photon Processes 305 64. Dipole Radiation 308 65. Selection Rules 312 8 CONTENTS Chapter XII. Scattering Theory 315 66. Scattering Cross Section . SPlAtur 1 . 315 67. Scattering Amplitude 317 68. Born Approximation 319 69. Method of Partial Waves 321 70. Inelastic Scattering 328 Appendices . . I. Angular Momentum Operators in Spherical Coordinates . . . II. Spherical Functions III. Cuebyshev-IIerinite Polynomials IV. Some Information from the Theory of Functions of a Complex Variable …. V. Airy Function VI. Method of Greenâ€™s Functions VII. Solution of the Fundamental Equation of the Scattering Theory by the Method of Greenâ€™s Functions VIII. The Dirac Delta Function

]]>I have done everything in my power to acquaint students with the basic ideas and methods of physics and to teach them how to think physically. This is why the book is not encyclopedic in its nature. It is mainly devoted to explaining the meaning of physical laws and showing how to apply them consciously. What I have tried to achieve is a deep knowledge of the fundamental principles of physics rather than a shallower acquaintance with a wide range of questions.

While using the book, try not to memorize the material formalistically and mechanically, but logically, i.e. memorize the material by thoroughly understanding it. I have tried to present physics not as a science for “cramming”, not as a certain volume of information to be memorized, but as a clever, logical, and attractive science.

Notwithstanding my desire to reduce the size, I considered it essential to include a number of mathematical sections in the course: on vectors, linear differential equations, the basic concepts of the theory of probability, etc. This was done to impart a “physical” tinge to the relevant concepts and relations. In addition, the mathematical “inclusions” make it possible to go on with the physics even if, as is often the case, the relevant material has not yet been covered in a mathematics course.

The present course is intended above all for higher technical schools with an extended syllabus in physics. The material has been arranged, however, so that the book can be used as a teaching aid for higher technical schools with an ordinary syllabus simply by omitting some section

The books were translated from the Russian by G. Leib and were first publised in 1980, this copy is the third reprint in 1989.

We have added new covers to the existing pdfs. All other credits to the original uploaders. Thanks to all the commentators who pointed to the libgen links.

Contents

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