MISHA Stack

Here are some issues of Misha on the Internet Archive

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All Credits to original uploaders

 

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This Amazingly Symmetrical World – Tarasov

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In this post, we will see the book This Amazingly Symmetrical World by Lev Tarasov.

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As we had written in the earlier post with Tarasov’s Calculus, which was remade electronically using LaTeX typesetting engine, this is another of his books which have been recreated with LaTeX.

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The amount of efforts put in creating this book has been amply rewarded as the result has been aesthetically very pleasing for me. And in the process, I have learned a lot more about LaTeX and its packages. Hope this small effort is found useful by all. In case you find any typos please comment on the post.

Some snapshots from the remade book:

 

The Internet Archive link

Link to the git repo of the source files

README.md

The project has the LaTeX source files for the book This Amazingly Symmetrical
World by Lev Tarasov. We have used the scans of the book for images and have
not recreated any of the images.

Though I would have liked to create all the pages, especially the cover and the
art till the title page using TiKZ, for now, I have created pdfs for those pages
in Inkscape. Purists may not like it, but at least in this version, that is how things are. Also the tables are not made using LaTeX, but are simple scans. Perhaps in a later version of the book, we will have these two issues sorted.

The original typesetting of the book lets itself to be very well typeset with one of Edward Tufte’s book style implemented in LaTeX.

If there are any errors while typesetting, for example, references, or typos
please report them so that they can be addressed.

As usual, you will need all the package files to compile the book correctly.

 

Also found a copy of the original Russian it has some different illustration.

Contents

Preface 13

A Conversation 15

Part I Symmetry Around Us 23

1 Mirror Symmetry 27

1 An Object and Its Mirror Twin 27
2 Mirror Symmetry 30
3 Enantiomorphs 31

2 Other Kinds of Symmetry 35

4 Rotational Symmetry 35
5 Mirror-Rotational Symmetry
6 Translational Symmetry
7 Bad Neighbours 39
8 Glide Plane (Axis) of Symmetry

3 Borders and Patterns 43

9 Borders 43
10 Decorative Patterns 45
11 Pattern Construction 49
12 The ‘Lizards’ Design 51

4 Regular Polyhedra 53

13 The Five Platonic Solids 53
14 The Symmetry of the Regular Polyhedra 54
15 The Uses of the Platonic Solids to Explain Some Fundamental Problems 55
16 On the Role of Symmetry in the Cognition of Nature 57

5 Symmetry In Nature 59

17 From the Concept of Symmetry to the Real Picture of a Symmetrical World 59
18 Symmetry in Inanimate Nature. Crystals 61
19 Symmetry in the World of Plants 63
20 Symmetry in the World of Animals 66
21 Inhabitants of Other Worlds 69

6 Order in the World of Atoms 71

22 Molecules 71
23 The Puzzle of the Benzene Ring 72
24 The Crystal Lattice 73
25 The Face-Centred Cubic Lattice 74
26 Polymorphism 76
27 The Crystal Lattice and the External Appearance of a Crystal 77
28 The Experimental Study of Crystal Structures 78
29 The Mysteries of Water 79
30 Magnetic Structures 80
31 Order and Disorder 82

7 Spirality In Nature 85

32 The Symmetry and Asymmetry of the Helix 85
33 Helices in Nature 87
34 The DNA Molecule 89
35 The Rotation of the Plane of Light Polarization 91
36 Left and Right Molecules. Stereoisomerism 92
37 The Left-Right Asymmetry of Molecules and Life 93

Part II Symmetry Around Us 97

8 Symmetry and The Relativity of Motion 101

38 The Relativity Principle 101
39 The Relativity of Simultaneous Events 102
40 The Lorentz Transformations 103
41 The Relativity of Time Periods 105
42 The Speed in Various Frames 106

9 The Symmetry of Physical Laws 109

43 Symmetry Under Spatial Translations 109
44 Rotational Symmetry 111
45 Symmetry in Time 112
46 The Symmetry Under Mirror Reflection 113
47 An Example of Asymmetry of Physical Laws 114

10 Conservation Laws 117

48 An Unusual Adventure of Baron Münchhausen 117
49 The Problem of Billiard Balls 118
50 On the Law of Conservation of Momentum 121
51 The Vector Product of Two Vectors 122
52 Kepler’s Second Law 123
53 Conservation of the Intrinsic Angular Momentum of a Rotating Body 126

11 Symmetry and Conservation Laws 129

54 The Relationship of Space and Time Symmetry to Conservation Laws 129
55 The Universal and Fundamental Nature of Conservation Laws 130
56 The Practical Value of Conservation Laws 133
57 The Example of the Compton Effect 134
58 Conservation Laws as Prohibiting Rules 136

12 The World of Elementary Particles 139

59 Some Features of Particles 139
60 The Zoo of Elementary Particles 141
61 Particles and Antiparticles 142
62 Particles, Antiparticles and Symmetry 146
63 Neutrino and Antineutrino 148
64 The Instability of Particles 149
65 Inter-conversions of Particles 152

13 Conservation Laws and Particles 157

66 Conservation of Energy and Momentum in Particle Reactions 157
67 The Conservation of Electric Charge and Stability of the Electron 159
68 The Three Conservation Laws and Neutrino 160
69 Experimental Determination of Electron Antineutrino 162
70 Electron and Muon Numbers. Electron and Muon Neutrinos 163
71 The Baryon Number and Stability of the Proton 165
72 Discrete Symmetries. CPT-Invariance 167

14 The Ozma Problem 171

73 What Is the Ozma Problem? 171
74 The Ozma Problem Before 1956 173
75 The Mirror Asymmetry of Beta-Decay Processes 174
76 The Mirror Asymmetry in Decay Processes and the Ozma Problem 175
77 The Fall of Charge-Conjugation Symmetry 176
78 Combined Parity 177
79 Combined Parity and the Ozma Problem 179
80 The Solution to the Ozma Problem 180

15 Fermions and Bosons 183

81 The Periodic Table and the Pauli Principle 183
82 Commutative Symmetry. Fermions and Bosons 184
83 Symmetrical and Antisymmetrical Wave Functions 185
84 The Superfluidity of Liquid Helium. Superconductivity 187
85 Induced Light Generation and Lasers 188

16 The Symmetry of Various Interactions 189

86 The Principal Types of Interactions 189
87 Isotopic Invariance of Strong Interactions. The Isotopic Spin (Isospin) 191
88 Strangeness Conservation in Strong and Electromagnetic Interactions 194
89 Interactions and Conservations 197
90 A Curious Formula 198
91 The Unitary Symmetry of Strong Interactions 199

17 Quark-Lepton Symmetry 203

92 Quarks 203
93 The Charmed World 207
94 Quark-Lepton Symmetry 208
95 A New Discovery 210

A Conversation Between the Author and the Reader About the Role of Symmetry 213

The Ubiquitous Symmetry 213
The Development of the Concept of Symmetry 215
Symmetry-Asymmetry 217
On the Role of Symmetry in the Scientific Quest for Knowledge 219
Symmetry in Creative Arts 222

Literature 231

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Theory of Angular Momentum – Yutsis, Levinson, Vanagas

In this post, we will see the book Theory of Angular Momentum by A. P. Levinson, I. B. Vanagas, V. V. Yutsis.

About the book

FOREWORD

The principal results obtained up to 1935 in the quantum-mechanical theory of angular momentum are contained in chapter III of Condon and Shortley’s “Theory of Atomic Spectra” /1949/. Since then, owing to the ideas of Wigner /1931,1937/ and Racah /1942/, the theory has been enriched by the algebra of noncommuting tensor operators and the theory of y-coefficients. This has considerably increased its computational possibilities and has broadened the scope of its applications. Among the branches of theoretical physics where the methods of the theory of angular momentum are widely applied today we might mention the theory of atomic and nuclear spectra, the scattering of polarized particles in nuclear reactions, the theory of genealogical coefficients, etc. (a bibliography of the applications may be found in Edmonds’ book /1957/).

The only book known to us giving an exposition of the algebra of noncommuting tensor operators and j-coefficients is Edmonds’ “Angular Momentum in Quantum Mechanics” /1957/, which may serve as an excellent textbook for a first acquaintance with the subject. However, the exposition of the theory of j-coefficients and transformation matrices given in this book is not complete. This may constitute an impediment when the apparatus is employed m more complicated cases. The present
book fills this gap.

The writing of this book began before Edmonds’ book appeared in print. The authors have utilized nearly all results known to them in the given field. Among these a certain place is occupied by the results obtained by a group of workers under the
direction of one of the present authors (A. Yutsis), the remaining two authors (I. Levmson and V. Vanagas) being the principal participants. The book corresponds to the content of the first part of a course, “Methods of Quantum-Mechanical Atomic Calculations”, given by the senior author to students of theoretical physics at the
Vilnius State University im. V. Kapsukas over the last two years.

We found it worthwhile to use the elegant and powerful methods of group theory in our exposition. To avoid encumbering the book with elements of group theory we have assumed that the reader is already acquainted with linear representations of the three-dimensional rotation group. The reader who is unfamiliar with this may refer to the books by G.Ya. Lyubarskii*/1957/ and I. M, Gel’fand et al. /1958/.

We begin with the well-known theory of vector addition of two angular momenta (chapter I), turning next to the addition of an arbitrary number of angular momenta (chapter II), The following chapters (III- VI) are devoted to quantities of the theory of angular momentum where an important place is occupied by the graphical method which IS convenient for various calculations. The last chapter (VII) deals with the method of noncommuting tensor operators. Material of a supplementary character is given in the appendices.

We have cited a number of unpublished works some of which were not available to us. References to these were based on other published works. We apologise in advance for any resulting inaccuracy.

The book was translated from the Russian by A. Sen and R.N. Sen and was published by Israel Program for Scientific Translations for the National Science Foundation and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, U.S.A. in 1962.

The Internet Archive Link

Contents

FOREWORD

TRANSLATOR’S NOTE

Chapter I ADDITION OF TWO ANGULAR MOMENTA 1

1. Angular momentum operators and spatial rotations 1
2. Angular momentum eigenfunctions and representations of the rotation group 2
3. Addition of angular momenta, reduction of the direct product of representations of the rotation group 5
4. Expressions for the Clebsch-Gordan coefficients and their properties 8
5. Wigner coefficients and their properties 13

Chapter II ADDITION OF AN ARBITRARY NUMBER OF ANGULAR MOMENTA 16

6. General considerations on the addition of an arbitrary number of angular momenta 16
7. Group -theoretic considerations on the generalized Clebsch-Gordan coefficients 19
8. The transformation matrix 21
9. Simplification of the transformation matrix 24
10. Generalized Wigner coefficients and their properties 27

Chapter III GRAPHICAL METHODS FOR OPERATIONS WITH SUMS OF PRODUCTS OF WIGNER COEFFICIENTS 31

11. Sums of products of Wigner coefficients (jm-coefficients) 31
12. Graphical representation of jm-coefficients 34
13. Expansion of jm-coefficients in generalized Wigner coefficients 39
14. Transformation of jm-coefficients 42
15. Summation of jm-coefficients 46

Chapter IV j-COEFFICIENTS AND THEIR PROPERTIES 49

16. The 6 j-coefficient and its properties 49
17. 3n j-coefficients of the first and second kinds 55
18. The 9 j-coefficient and Its properties 59
19. 12 j-coefficients and their properties 62
20. Methods of studying j-coefficients, 15 j-coefficients 65

Chapter V UTILIZATION OF TRANSFORMATION MATRICES FOR OBTAINING SUM RULES AND TRANSFORMATION FORMULAS FOR jm-COEFFICIENTS 71

21. General considerations on the relation between transformation matrices and j-coefficients 71
22. Methods for obtaining the relation between transformation matrices and j-coefficients 74
23. Explicit expressions for the simplest transformation matrices 76
24. Utilization of matrix identities for obtaining sum rules on j-coefficients 80
25. Use of matrix identities for the transformation of jm-coefficients 83

Chapter VI EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION OF THE GRAPHICAL METHOD 87

26. Graphical summation of products of Wigner coefficients 87
27. A more complex product of Wigner coefficients 91
28 Summation of a product of j-coefficients 94
29. Summation of a product of Wigner coefficients and j-coefficients 98
30. Choice of a method of calculation 102

Chapter VII. IRREDUCIBLE TENSOR OPERATORS AND EXPRESSIONS FOR THEIR MATRIX ELEMENTS 105

31. Irreducible tensor operators and their properties 105
32. Tensor products 107
33. Expressions for matrix elements of products of tensor operators 109
34. Calculation of matrix elements of complex products of tensor operators 111
35. Double tensors, their products and matrix elements 114

Appendix 1. NOTATIONS FOR THE WIGNER, 6j-, 9j– AND ALLIED COEFFICIENTS 117

Appendix 2. ALGEBRAIC FORMULAS FOR THE CLEBSCH-GORDAN COEFFICIENTS 119

Appendix 3. DIAGRAMS OF 18 j-COEFFICIENTS 122

Appendix 4. PROPERTIES OF 18 j-COEFFICIENTS 126

Appendix 5. EXPRESSIONS FOR THE TRANSFORMATION MATRICES OF EIGENFUNCTIONS OF FIVE COUPLED ANGULAR MOMENTA 135

Appendix 6. SUM RULES ON j-COEFFICIENTS 141

Appendix 7 THE SIMPLEST SUMMATION AND TRANSFORMATION FORMULAS FOR jm-COEFFICIENTS 152

BIBLIOGRAPHY 154

SUPPLEMENTARY BIBLIOGRAPHY 157

INDEX 158

 

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Physics for the Technician – Zhdanov

Post from user srihyd  (many, many thanks for the post)

physics for the Technician-zhdanov_0000.jpg

Thanks, Mitr.
Just uploaded the following to Archive.org. This is my first scan and upload. So, let pl. let me know if anything I have to take care of in future when uploading.

https://archive.org/details/PhysicsForTheTechnicianZhdanov

Physics for the Technician
by L. S. Zhdanov
Translated from the Russian
by Mark Samokhvalov, Cand. Sc.
Mir Publisher
Moscow

This physics course is intended for students of technical
junior colleges and gives an adequate coverage of physics at
the high-school level. The aim is to provide a survey of
those basics that are essential for the specialized courses
that a future technician takes at college. The Soviet programme
in physics for technical colleges does not include mechanics because this section of physics is studied in secondary school. But since there are many courses in mechanics, brief and extended, the teacher can always select a book that is best suited for his or her purposes. One book
that we find especially useful is Theoretical Mechanics by
E. M. Nikitin (Mir Publishers, Moscow, 1980).

The physics course that follows starts with a brief introduction
about physical quantities and their measurement,
the International System of Units, and the approximations
that any scientist makes when measuring or calculating a
quantity. It then goes on to the subject of heat and molecular
physics. The other parts deal with electricity and
magnetism, oscillations and waves, optics and special relativity,
and nuclear physics and, finally, there is a brief
survey of astronomical facts. The International System of
Units is used throughout the book. However, since other
systems of units are used in physics, the author has found it
expedient to provide basic information about these, especially
in electricity (Sections 16-9 and 16-10). To this end the book includes an appendix whose first section is devoted to the base and derived units of the SI system.

The author, Leonid Zhdanov, wrote all the parts of the
book except Part 6, which was written by Evghenii Traut.
The author’s son. Grigorii Zhdanov, participated in the preparation
of the book for press.

 

Contents

FOREWORD 15

Introduction

1 PHYSICAL QUANTITIES AND THEIR MEASUREMENT 18

What is Physics? Physics and Technology. A Quantity and Its
Measurement. Physical Quantities. Direct and Indirect Measure¬
ments. Measurement of Angles in Astronomy. Measuring Dis¬
tances to Celestial Bodies by the Parallax Method. Units
of Time and Their Relation to Earth’s Motion. Units of
Measurement from Formulae. The International System of
Units. Treatment of Data. Combining Errors. Density of Sub¬
stance.

Part One – Heat and Molecular Physics

2 THE FUNDAMENTALS OF KINETIC THEORY OF MATTER 36

First Principles of Kinetic Theory. Concept of Temperature. Diffusion. Forces of Molecular Interaction. Kinetic and Potential Energies of Molecules. Concept of Internal Energy. Probability of an Event. The Statistical Method.

3 KINETIC THEORY OF GASES 47

The Gaseous State. Brownian Motion. Measuring Molecular Speeds. Distribution of Molecular Speeds. Mass and Size of Molecules and Atoms. Avogadro and Loschmidt Numbers. Mean Free Path. Gaseous Pressure. Pressure Gauges. Kinetic Calculation of the Pressure. Vacuum.
4 THE IDEAL GAS 61

Properties of Ideal Gas. Change of Gaseous Pressure with Temperature at Constant Volume. Absolute Zero. Thermodynamic Temperature Scale. Relation of Temperature to Kinetic Energy of Gas Molecules.

5 IDEAL-GAS EQUATION OF STATE 68

Thermodynamic Properties. Combined Gas Law. Universal Gas Constant. The Ideal-Gas Law. Dependence of Root-Mean-Square Speed of Gas Molecules on Temperature. Isochoric Process. Isobaric Process. Isothermal Process. Internal Energy of Ideal Gas. Work Performed by Gas.

6 INTERNAL ENERGY 80

Internal Energy and the Surroundings. Heat Exchange. Types of Heat Exchange. Changing Internal Energy by Means of Work. Relation of Internal Energy to State of Matter.

7 QUANTITY OF HEAT 86

The Measurement of Heat. Changing Internal Energy by Heating or Cooling. Heat of Combustion. The Law of Heat Exchange.

8 THE LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY. THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 91

Mechanical Equivalent of Heat. Conservation of Energy in Mechanics. The Law of Conservation of Energy. The First Law of Thermodynamics. Some Applications of the First Law of Thermodynamics. Adiabatic Process. Some Ideas on Stellar Structure.

9 CHANGE OF STATE 101

Vapourization and Condensation. Evaporation. Heat of Vapourization.
10 PROPERTIES OF VAPOUR. BOILING 105

Nonsaturated and Saturated Vapours. Properties of Saturated Vapour. Properties of Nonsaturated Vapour. The Boiling Process. Dependence of Boiling Temperature on External Pressure. Boiling Point. The Law of Heat Exchange for Vapourization and Condensation. Superheated Steam and Its Use in Technology. Critical State of Substance. Liquefaction of Gases.
11 WATER VAPOUR IN THE ATMOSPHERE 118

Humidity. Absolute and Relative Humidities. Measuring Humidity. The Atmosphere of Planets.
12 THE LIQUID STATE 122

What Is a Liquid? The Surface Layer of a Liquid. Surface Tension. Measuring Surface Tension. Wetting. The Shape of Liquid Surfaces. Capillarity. Viscosity. Newton’s Law of Fluid Friction. Amorphous Substances.
13 THE SOLID STATE 137

What Is a Solid? Crystalline Anisotropy. Types of Crystals. Types of Deformation. Stress. Elasticity, Plasticity, Brittleness and Hardness. Hooke’s Law. Energy of a Body Under Elastic Deformation.
14 CHANGE OF STATE—II 151

Fusion and Crystallization. Specific Heat of Fusion. Changes in Volume and Density During Fusion and Solidification. Pressure Dependence of Temperature of Fusion and Heat of Fusion. The Law of Heat Exchange for Fusion and Crystallization. Solutions and Alloys. Sublimation. Phase Diagrams. Triple Point.
15 THERMAL EXPANSION 161

Basic Facts About Thermal Expansion. Linear Expansion. Volume Expansion of Heated Bodies. Thermal Expansion of Solids. Thermal Expansion of Liquids. Thermal Expansion in Nature and Technology.

Part Two – Electricity and Magnetism

16 THE FUNDAMENTALS OF THE ELECTRON THEORY OF ATOMIC STRUCTURE. COULOMB’S LAW 168

Electrification of Bodies. The Concept of an Electric Charge. The Complex Nature of the Atomic Structure. Rutherford’s Experiment and the Nuclear Idea. The Atomic structure of Chemical Elements. Electrification by Contact. Interaction Between Electric Charges. Coulomb’s Law. The Permittivity of a Medium. SI Units in Electricity. Gaussian Units in Electrostatics. The Electroscope.

17 THE ELECTRIC FIELD 179

Electric Field as a Special Form of Matter. The Electric Field Strength. Electric Field and Lines of Force. The Homogeneous Electric Field. Work Done by an Electric Field in Moving a Charge. Electric Potential^and Potential Difference. Relation Between Electric Field Strength and Voltage, a conductor in an Electric Field. The Electrometer. A Dielectric in an Electric Field. Ferroelectrics. The Piezoelectric Effect. Capacitance. Factors That Determine Capacitance. Capacitors. Combinations of Capacitors in Parallel and in Series. The Energy of a Charged Capacitor. Millikan’s Experiment.

18 ELECTRIC CURRENT IN METALS. DIRECT-CURRENT CIRCUITS 210

Charge Carriers and Electric Current. Current and Current Density. The Ammeter, the Voltmeter and the Galvanometer. Closed Electric Circuit. Electromotive Force of a Power Source. External and Internal Sections of a Circuit.* Ohm s Law for a Section of a Circuit Without EMF. Dependence of Resistance on Conductor’s Material, Length and Cross Section. The Temperature Dependence of Resistance. Superconductivity. Equivalent Resistance. Electric Power Consumers in Series. Electric Power Consumers in Parallel. Ohm’s Law for a Complete Circuit. Combinations of Cells. Ohm’s Law in General Form.

19 ELECTRIC POWER, WORK AND HEAT LOSS 232

Electric Current and Work. Power in a Direct Current Circuit. Heating Effects of Current. Relation of Resistance to Heating Effect.

20 THERMOELECTRICITY 237

Thermionic Emission. Contact Potential Difference. Thermo electromotive Force. The Peltier Effect. Application of Thermoelectricity in Science and Technology.

21 ELECTRIC CURRENT IN ELECTROLYTES 243

Electrolytic Dissociation. Electrolysis. Electrolysis Involving Anode Dissolution. Faraday’s First Law. Faraday’s Second Law. Some Applications of Electrolysis.

22 GALVANIC CELLS AND STORAGE BATTERIES 250

Transformation of Chemical Energy Into Electric Energy. Galvanic Cells. Polarization of Galvanic Cells and Its Reduction. Storage Batteries. Galvanic Cells and Storage Batteries in Modern Life.

23 ELECTRIC CURRENT IN GASES AND IN VACUUM 255

Ionization of a Gas. Dependence of Current on Voltage. Electric Discharge Through Gases at Atmospheric Pressure. Electric Discharge Through Gases at Low Pressure. Radiation and Absorption of Energy by an Atom. Cathode Rays. Plasma. Electric Current in Vacuum. The Diode. The Triode. The Cathode-Ray Tube.

24 ELECTRIC CURRENT IN SEMICONDUCTORS 271

Conductors, Dielectrics and Semiconductors. Pure (Intrinsic) Semiconductors. Impurity (Extrinsic) Semiconductors. P-N Junction. The Semiconductor Diode. The Transistor.

25 ELECTROMAGNETISM 282

Interaction of Currents. Magnetic Field as a Special Form of Matter. Magnets. Magnetic Lines of Force. Magnetic Fields in Some Simple Cases. Comparing Magnetic Properties of a Solenoid and a Permanent Magnet s Interaction Between Parallel Currents. The Permeability of a Medium. Definition of the Ampere. A Measure of the Strength of the Magnetic Field. The Homogeneous Magnetic Field. Magnetic Moment of a Current Loop. Work Done in Moving a Current-Carrying Conductor a Magnetic Field. Magnetic Induction}’Due to Currents in Conductors of Different Shape. Magnetic Field Strength. Paramagnetic, Diamagnetic and Ferromagnetic Substances. Magnetization of Ferromagnetic Substances. Construction of an Ammeter and a Voltmeter. The Lorentz Force Equation. Constant arid Variable Magnetic Fields. Magnetic Fields in Solar and Cosmic Phenomena.

26 ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION 310

Flux Linkage and Inductance. Discovery of Induced Current. Induced EMF in a Straight Conductor Moving in a Magnetic Field. Faraday’s Induction Experiments. Lenz’s Law. The Magnitude of Induced EMF. Solenoidal Electric Field and Its Relation to Magnetic Field. Eddy Currents. Self-Induction and Self-Induced EMF. The Energy of a Magnetic Field.

Part Three – Oscillations and Waves

27 MECHANICAL OSCILLATIONS AND WAVES 324

Oscillatory Motion. Conditions for Appearance of Oscillations. Classification of Oscillatory Motion Based on the Forces Acting on the Source. The Parameters of Oscillatory Motion. Quantities Characteristic of the Instantaneous State of an Oscillating Particle. Harmonic Oscillations. The Equation for Harmonic Oscillations and Its Graph. The Simple Pendulum. Laws Governing the Oscillations of a Simple Pendulum. The Compound Pendulum. Practical Uses of Pendulums. Elastic Oscillations. Energy Transformation in Oscillatory Motion. Propagation of “Oscillatory Motion in an Elastic Medium. Energy Transport by Means of a Travelling Wave. Transverse and Longitudinal Waves. Waves and Rays. Wavelength. Velocity of Wave Propagation. Combination of Two Vibrations in Same Line. Reflection of Waves. Standing Waves. Interference of Waves. Mechanical Resonance.

28 SOUND WAVES AND ULTRASONIC WAVES 353

What Is Sound? The Velocity of Sound. Loudness and Intensity of Sound. Pitch and Timbre of Sound. Interference of Sound Waves. Beats. Reflection and Absorption of Sound. Acoustic Resonance. Ultrasound and Its Applications.

29 ALTERNATING-CURRENT CIRCUITS 362

Rotation of a Coil in a Homogeneous Magnetic Field. The Induction Generator. Effective Values of EMF, Voltage and Current. Inductance and Capacitance in an AC Circuit. The Transformer. Induction Coil. Production, Transport and Distribution of Electric Energy.
30 ELECTRICAL OSCILLATIONS AND ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES 374

Transformation of Energy in a Closed Oscillatory Circuit. The Electron Tube Oscillator. High-Frequency Currents. Electromagnetic Field as a Special Form of Matter. Open Oscillatory Circuit. Electromagnetic Waves. Electrical Resonance. The Invention of Radio. Radiotelegraphy. Amplitude Modulation. Radiotelephony. A Simple Vacuum Tube Receiver. Radar. The Cathode-Ray Oscilloscope.

Part Four – Optics and Special Relativity

31 THE NATURE OF LIGHT. PROPAGATION OF LIGHT 394

Historical Survey. The Electromagnetic Theory of Light. The Quantum Theory of Light. Sources of Light. Huygens’ Principle. The Velocity of Light in a Vacuum. The Velocity of Light in a Medium.
32 REFLECTION AND REFRACTION OF LIGHT 401

Optical Phenomena at the Boundary Surface Between Two Media. The Laws of Light Reflection. Diffuse and Regular Reflection. The Plane Mirror. The Laws of Light Refraction. Absolute and Relative Refractive Indices. Total Reflection. Refraction by a Plane Parallel Plate and a Prism.
33 IMAGE FORMATION BY SPHERICAL LENSES AND MIRRORS 414

Lenses. Focal Points and Planes. Lens Power. Image Formation for a Luminous Point Lying on the Principal Axis of a Lens. The Lens Formula. Image Formation for a Luminous Point Lying on a Secondary Axis of a Lens. Image Formation by Spherical Lenses. Lateral Magnification. Spherical Mirrors. Image Formation by Spherical Mirrors.

34 THE EYE AND VISION. OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS 428

Optical Systems. Deficiencies of Optical Systems, Projection Lantern. The Photographic Camera, The Eye as an Optical System. Persistence of Vision, Angle of View# Defects of Vision. Optical Illusions. The Magnifying Glass. The Microscope, Telescopes. Galileo’s Telescope and Binoculars.
35 PHENOMENA ARISING FROM WAVE NATURE OF LIGHT 447

Interference of Light. Colours of Thin Films. Interference in a Wedge-Shaped Film. Newton’s Rings. Interference in Nature and Technology. Diffraction of Light. The Diffraction Grating. Measurement of Wavelength. Polarization of Waves. Polarization of Light. Polarization of Light by Reflection and Refraction.
36 PHOTOMETRY 464

Energy Flux of Radiation. Solid Angle. Luminous Flux. Luminous Intensity. Illuminance. Luminance. The Laws of Lumination. Light Measurements.
37 RADIATION AND SPECTRA. X RAYS 475

Dispersion of Light. Dispersion hy a Prism. Combining Colours. Complementary Colours. The Colour of Objects. Ultraviolet and Infrared Spectra. Ultraviolet and Infrared Radiation in Nature and Technology. Spectroscope and Spectrograph. Types of Spectra. Absorption of Light in Gases and Vapours, Kirchhoff’s Law of Radiation. The Stefan-Boltzmann, Wien and Planck Radiation Laws. Solar and Stellar spectra. Spectroscopic Anal¬ysis. The Doppler Effect. X Rays and Their Practical Uses. The Electromagnetic Spectrum, Types of Cosmic Radiation.
38 PHENOMENA ARISING FROM QUANTUM NATURE OF LIGHT 504

Waveband Quantum Properties of Radiation. The Pressure of Light. The Thermal Effect of Radiation, The Chemical Effect of Radiation. Photography. External Photoelectric Effect. The Laws of External Photoelectric Effect. Einstein’s Photoelectric Equation. Photocells Utilizing the External Photoelectric Effect. Internal Photoelectric Effect. Photoresistors. Photocells Utilizing the Internal Photoelectric Effect. Photocells in Science and Technology. Television. Bohr’s Atom Model. The Quantized Atom. Luminescence. Lasers and Masers.
39 THE FUNDAMENTALS OF SPECIAL RELATIVITY THEORY 536

Relativity in Classical Mechanics. Galilean Transformations, Experimental Foundations of Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity. What Are Simultaneous Events in Special Relativity? Lorentz Transformations. Length and Time Interval in Special Relativity. The Relativistic Velocity-Composition Law. Mass and Energy in Special Relativity. Einstein’s Mass-Energy Formula. Relation Between Momentum and Energy in Special Relativity.

Part Five – Nuclear Physics

40 THE ATOMIC NUCLEUS 564

Methods of Particle Detection. Radioactivity. Transmutation of Elements. Energy and Penetrating Power of Radioactive Radiation. Cherenkov Radiation. Man-Made Transmutations. The Neutron. Nuclear Structure. Nuclear Symbols and Reactions. Isotopes. Nuclear Forces. Nuclear Binding.
41 COSMIC RAYS. ELEMENTARY PARTICLES 585

Cosmic Rays, The Positron. The Neutrino. The Discovery of New Elementary Particles. Classification of the Elementary Particles. Antiparticles. Mutual Transformation of Substance and Field. The Quark Model.
42 NUCLEAR POWER AND ITS UTILIZATION 600

Transuranium Elements. Fission, Chain Reactions. Nuclear Reactors. Production of Power by Nuclear Reactors, Fusion. Controlled Thermonuclear Reaction. Some Applications of Radioisotopes.

Part Six – Astronomy: a Brief Survey

43 THE STRUCTURE AND EVOLUTION OF THE UNIVERSE 618

The Universe. The Origin and Evolution of Celestial Bodies. Cosmology.

APPENDIX 632

NAME INDEX 635

SUBJECT INDEX 636

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Helicopter Aerodynamics – Bazov

In this post, we will see the book Helicopter Aerodynamics by D. L. Bazov.

About the book:

Principles of helicopter flight under various conditions are reviewed, giving special attention to the operation of the main rotor. A brief history of helicopter development is presented, together with a summary of the main components of a helicopter and a classification of the various types of helicopters. The characteristics of the main rotor and its operation during autorotation and during axial and oblique flow are considered. Also considered are vertical and horizontal flight, altitude gain and descent, takeoff and landing, equilibrium, stability, and controllability, taking into account the aerodynamic forces acting on the helicopter during the various maneuvers.

The book is part of NASA Technical Translations and was published in 1972.

The Internet Archive Link

Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS 194

CHAPTER I. PRINCIPLES OF HELICOPTER FLIGHT 1

§ 1. Brief History of Helicopter Development 1
§ 2. The Helicopter and Its Basic Components 4
§ 3. Classification of Helicopters 6
CHAPTER II. BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MAIN ROTOR 10

§ 4. General Characteristics 10
§ 5. Geometric Characteristics 11
§ 6. Basic Regimes of Operation 16
§ 7. The Operating Regime Coefficient of the Main Rotor 18

CHAPTER III. OPERATION OF THE MAIN ROTOR IN THE AXIAL FLOW
REGIME 20

§ 8. Impulsive Theory of an Ideal Rotor 20
§ 9. Blade Element Theory 24
§ 10. Forces Resisting Rotation of the Main Rotor 26
§ 11. Power and Torque Required to Rotate Main Rotor 28
§ 12. Main Rotor RPM Control 31
§ 13. Techniques for Counteracting Main Rotor Reactive Torque 33
§ 14. Techniques for Transmitting Torque From Engine to Main Rotor 35
§ 15. Main Rotor Power Available 39
§ 16. Main Rotor Thrust in Vertical Climb and Vertical Descent 41
§ 17. Losses of the Real Rotor 43
§ 18. Characteristics of Operation of Coaxial System of Two Main Rotors 46

Programmed Testing Questions and Answers 50

CHAPTER IV. MAIN ROTOR OPERATION IN FORWARD FLIGHT 56

§ 19. Characteristics of Main Rotor Operation in Forward Flight 56
§ 20. Main Rotor Thrust as a Function of Flight Speed 59
§ 21. Blade Thrust and Its Azimuthal Variation 62
§ 22. Resultant Flow Velocity Over Blade Element in the Hub Rotation Plane 64
§ 23. Variation of Circumferential and Resultant Velocities Along Main Rotor Radius 66
§ 24. Drawbacks of Main Rotor With Rigid Blade Retention 68
§ 25. Purpose of Main Rotor Hub Horizontal Hinges 71
§ 26. Conditions for Blade Equilibrium Relative to the Horizontal Hinge 71

§ 27. Main Rotor Cone of Revolution 74
§ 28. Blade Flapping Motions 75
§ 29. Main Rotor Coning Axis Tilt 78
§ 30. Blade Flapping Motion Restriction and Flapping Compensator 80
§ 31. Blade Element Angle of Attack Change Owing to Flapping Motions 83
§ 32. Effect of Number of Blades on Main Rotor Aerodynamic Characteristics 85
§ 33. Azimuthal Variation of Rotational Resistance Forces and Reactive Torque 85
§ 34. Inertial Forces Acting on Main Rotor Blades 87
§ 35. Oscillatory Blade Motions 91
§ 36. Damping of Oscillatory Blade Motions 94
§ 37. Possibility of Loss of Blade Flapping Motion Stability 97

Programmed Testing Questions and Answers 100

CHAPTER V. HELICOPTER VERTICAL FLIGHT OPERATING REGIMES 107

§ 38. Hovering Regime. General Characteristics. 108
§ 39. Diagram of Forces Acting on Helicopter and Hovering Conditions 109
§ 40. Thrust and Power Required for Hovering 112
§ 41. Vertical Climb 119
§ 42. Helicopter Vertical Descent With Operating Engine 123
§ 43. Vortex Ring Regime 125

Programmed Testing Questions and Answers 126

CHAPTER VI. HELICOPTER HORIZONTAL FLIGHT 129

§ 44. General Characteristics of Horizontal Flight 129
§ 45. Thrust and Power Required for Horizontal Flight 131
§ 46. Characteristic Helicopter Horizontal Flight Speeds 136
§ 47. Effect of Helicopter Weight and Flight Altitude on Performance 138
§ 48. Factors Limiting Maximal Horizontal Flight Speed and Ways to Increase This Speed 141
§ 49. Horizontal Flight Endurance and Range 144

Programmed Testing Questions and Answers 148

CHAPTER VII. CLIMB ALONG INCLINED TRAJECTORY 152
§ 50. General Characteristics of the Climb Regime Along an Inclined Trajectory 152
§ 51. Thrust and Power Required for Climb 153
§ 52. Vertical Rate of Climb 155
§ 53. Variation of Vertical Rate of Climb With Altitude 156

CHAPTER VIII. HELICOPTER DESCENT ALONG INCLINED TRAJECTORY 160
§ 54. General Characteristics of the Descent Regime 160
§ 55. Thrust and Power Required for Helicopter Descent 162
§ 56. Helicopter Rate of Descent With Operating Engine 164

Programmed Testing Questions and Answers 166

CHAPTER IX. HELICOPTER FLIGHT IN MAIN ROTOR AUTO ROTATIVE REGIME 171

§ 57. Vertical Descent 171
§ 58. Blade Aerodynamic Forces 176
§ 59. Main Rotor Autorotation Conditions and Regimes 177
§ 60. Conditions for Autorotation of Different Blade Elements 182
§ 61. Gliding 187
§ 62. Vertical Rate of Descent in a Glide 191
§ 63. Safety Height 195
§ 64. Transition From Flight With Engine Operating to Flight in the Main Rotor Autorotation Regime 197
§ 65. Gliding Characteristics of Dual-Rotor Helicopters 200Programmed Testing Questions and Answers 202

CHAPTER X. HELICOPTER TAKEOFF AND LANDING 208 /196
§ 66. Takeoff 208
§ 67. Landing 213

CHAPTER XI. HELICOPTER BALANCE, STABILITY, AND CONTROL 222
§ 68. Helicopter Center of Gravity and Balance 222
§ 69. General Analysis of Helicopter Equilibrium 225
§ 70. Helicopter Equilibrium in the Hovering Regime 227
§ 71. Helicopter Static Stability 236
§ 72. Helicopter Dynamic Stability 242
§ 73. Concept of Helicopter Control 245
§ 74. Change of Main Rotor Collective and Cyclic Pitch 246
§ 75. Purpose and Principle of the Main Rotor Tilt Control System 247
§ 76, Single-Rotor Helicopter Control Principles 252
§ 77. Dual-Rotor Helicopter Control Principles 254
§ 78. Concept of Helicopter Controllability 257

CHAPTER XII. HELICOPTER VIBRATIONS 262
§ 79. General Analysis of Vibrations 262
§ 80. Helicopter Forced Vibrations 264
§ 81. Self-Excited Vibrations 267
§ 82. Bending and Bending-Torsion Vibrations of Rigidly
Restrained Blade 271
APPENDIX I. SYMBOL LIST 281
APPENDIX II. PROGRAMMED TESTING ANSWERS 284
REFERENCES 285
viii

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Electricity And Man – Manoilov

In this post, we will see the book Electricity And Man by V. Manoilov.

Manoilov-Electricity-and-Man-Mir-1978-fc copy.png

About the book:

“… Life on Earth originated and developed in
interaction with electromagnetic fields. Electricity is
inherent in the living in its most complicated form – the
vital activity of man. Scientists have done much in
studying this amazing interaction of electricity and the
animate but much in nature is still concealed, much
must be analyzed and understood. This book will help
to widen the reader’s understanding of the interaction
of electricity and the living organism, although it makes
no claim to exhaust the subject … “

The book was translated from the Russian by George Kittell and was published by Mir in 1978

The Internet Archive Link

CONTENTS
To the English Reader 7
By Way of Preface 8

PART ONE ELECTRICITY CURES 11

Chapter One Electrophysics of Inanimate Nature 11

1. Motion, Motion, Motion… 11
2. Electric Conduction in Metals 13
3. Electrical Resistance of Solutions 18
4. Neither Conductor nor Insulator 19
5. Semiconductors with Impurity Conduction 22
6. Organic Semiconductors 27

Chapter Two Electrophysics of the Living Organism 35

1. Amazing Electrical Conductivity 35
2. Significance of Changes in the Electrical Properties of the Living Organism 42
3. Examples and Evidence 45

Chapter Three Physical Properties of the Biosphere 53

1. Electricity Round Us 53
2. Where is Magnetism and Where are the Magnetic Fields ? 57
3. Magnetic Storms and Man 60
4. Electricity and the Ratiobiosphere 66

Chapter Four Items from the Prehistory of the Use of Electricity in Medicine 74

1. First Discoveries 74
2. An Important Investigation 76
3. The Prize Awarded to Marat 78
4. Dispute between Galvani and Volta 81
5. V.V. Petrov’s Experiment The Beginning of Electrodynamics 85
6. Use of Electricity in Medicine and Biology in the 19th Century 89

Chapter Five The Physician’s Electric Assistant 93

1. The Origin of Biological Currents 93
2. The Electrocardiogram 96
3. The Electrocardiograph 101
4. Remote Diagnosis 104
5. Taking Medicine Without Powders or Pills 112

PART TWO ELECTRICITY IS DANGEROUS 118

Chapter Six In What Way is Electricity Dangerous ? 118

1. Events in Vasilevsky Island, St. Petersburg118
2. Electric Trauma and Some Statistics121
3. Temporary Wiring123
4. A “Horse Accident” 125
5. Examples of Electric Trauma 126
6. Is a Low Voltage Dangerous ? 131
7. One Hundred and TenkV Power Transmission Line in the City, and the Electric Safety of
Medical Instruments 134

Chapter Seven Biophysics of Electric Injury 139

1. Fundamentals for Study 139
2. The Dispute Continues 141
3. Man—a Self-regulating System 144
4. Something Unexpected 146
5. Danger! 149
6. Electricity Kills Animals as well as People 152

Bibliography 156

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The Mystery of The Earth’s Mantle – Malakhov

In this post, we will see the book The Mystery of The Earth’s Mantle by A. Malakhov.
Malakhov-The-Mystery-of-Earths-Mantle-Peace-1966-fc copy.png
About the book

What is the inside of the Earth like; what mysteries does its mantle conceal? What will the sensitive feelers of superdeep holes encounter there – boiling liquid magma or superhard matter, unimaginably high temperatures or cold approaching absolute zero?
Science cannot as yet give the exact answers to these questions, though myriads of different hypotheses have been put forth.
This book tells how scientists are ferreting out the secrets of the deeper zones of the Earth; its subject is the romance of the searches and tenacious investigations carried out by geologists who have devoted themselves to the study of the depths of our planet.
The book was translated from the Russian by David Sobolev and was published by Peace in 1966.
 CONTENTS
Riddles and More Riddles
An Argument 9
In the Fiery Font 12
The End of Gondwana Land 25
Rock Rhythms 35
Laws or Riddles? 43
The Black Arteries of the Depths 52
What the Neoneptunists Say 60
“We Must Not Wait for Favours.” 68
Flow of Information
A Signal into the Unknown 79
Key to the Gravity Code 100
Heat and Cold 112
You Will Not Find This in Any Textbook 119
Stray Currents 120
Hall! Radioactivity! 134
First Results 143
From Outer Space into the Depths of the Earth 145
In Search of the Unknown
Failures at First 161
Geography of the Unknown 166
The First Stone Tells Its Story 171
The Stone from the Kola Speaks 179
The Story of the Third and Fourth Stones 185
A Message from the Fifth Stone 190
Courtiers of the “Queen of the Depths” 194
An Artificial Mantle 203
And Here, Too, Synthesis 208
The World of Unsolved Riddles
Following in the Footsteps of the Classics 219
If the Magmatists are Right 224
Hardness Also Has Its Limit 231
“There’s No Magma Under the Crust!” 234
Beyond the Moho Discontinuity 240
But Who is Right? 243

 

 

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