In this post we will see the book *Elementary Physics: Problems and Solutions* by *I. P. Gurskii*

The book is intended for those preparing for university entrance examinations in physics. The contents and sequence of topics are in keeping with the requirements for such examinations. The few sections beyond the entrance examination programme are marked by circles. In view of the introduction of the elements of higher mathematics to the high-school curriculum, some problems have also been illustrated using differential calculus. The author has endeavoured to present the basic principles of school physics in a compact form to help the candidates revise the entire course in the shortest possible time. All sections have been illustrated with problems to give a better understanding of the subject. Each problem and its solution is followed by one or more exercises on the same topic, the exercises corresponding to problems that have been solved in the text are assigned the same number.Those intending to use this book independently are advised to attempt the exercises after going through the theoretical part. The relevant solved problems should be consulted if difficulties are encountered while solving the exercises. After this, the exercise should be tried again, and if there is more than one exercise bearing the same number, another exercise (preferably the last one) should be tackled. In most cases, the last exercises in a series are the most difficult.

The book was translated from Russian by Natalia Wadhwa and was first published in 1987.

PDF | OCR | 13.1 MB

All credits to Siddharth for scanning and posting this book.

You can get the book here (fc link) or here (IA link)

Contents

Foreword

From the Preface to the Second Russian Edition

INTRODUCTION

1.1. SI System of Units

1.2. Vectors. Some Mathematical Operations on Vectors

1.3. Projections of Points and Vectors onto an Axis

1.4. General Methodical Hints to the Solution of Problems

1. MECHANICS

1.1. Basic Concepts

A. Kinematics

1.2. Kinematics of Translatory Motion

1.3. Uniform Rectilinear Motion. Velocity. Graphs of Velocity and Path Length in Uniform Motion

1.4. Nonuniform Motion. Average and Instantaneous Velocities. Acceleration

1.5. Uniformly Variable Motion. Graphs of Velocity and Path Length in Uniformly Variable Motion

Problems with Solutions

Exercises

B. Dynamics of Translatory Motion

1.6. Force

1.7. Newton’s First Law. Inertial and Noninertial Reference Systems

1.8. Newton’s Second Law. Momentum of a Body

1.9. Newton’s Third Law

1.10. Principle of Independence of Action

1.11. Addition of Forces Acting at an Angle

1.12. Resolution of a Force into Two Components at an Angle to Each Other

1.13. Law of Momentum Conservation

1.14. Idea of Reaction Propulsion

1.15. Friction. Coefficient of Friction

1.16. Elastic Force. Hooke’s Law

1.17. Law of Universal Gravitation

1.18. Force of Gravity. Free Fall of Bodies

1.19. Weight of a Body. Weighing

1.20. Weightlessness

Problems with Solutions

Exercises

1.21. Work and Power

1.22. Energy. Kinetic and Potential Energies

1.23. Law of Energy Conservation

Problems with Solutions

Exercises

C. Kinematics and Dynamics of Rotational Motion of a Rigid Body

1.24. Uniform Rotational Motion. Angular Velocity. Linear Velocity

1.25. Centripetal Acceleration

1.26. Weight of a Body Considering the Rotation of the Earth

1.27. Reasons Behind the Emergence of Weightlessness in Artificial Satellites. Orbital Velocity

Problems with Solutions

Exercises

D. Statics

1.28. Equilibrium of a Nonrotating Body. Equilibrium Conditions for a Body on an Inclined Plane

Problems with Solutions

Exercises

1.29. Moment of Force

1.30. Addition of Parallel Forces. A Couple

1.31. Equilibrium of a Body with a Fixed Rotational Axis (Law of Torques)

1.32. Equilibrium of a Rigid Body in the General Case

Problems with Solutions

Exercises

1.33. Types of Equilibrium

1.34. Centre of Mass of a Body

1.35. Determination of the Centre of Mass for Bodies of Various Shapes

Problems with Solutions

Exercises

2. FLUIDS

2.1. Pressure

2.2. Pascal’s Law

2.3. Hydraulic Press

2.4. Pressure of a Fluid on the Bottom and Walls of a Vessel. Law of Communicating Vessels

2.5. Atmospheric Pressure. Barometers

2.6. Archimedean Principle

Problems with Solutions

Exercises

3. MOLECULAR PHYSICS. THERMAL PHENOMENA

A. Molecular Physics

3.1. Basic Concepts of Molecular-Kinetic Theory

3.2. Brownian Movement. Gas Pressure

3.3. Diffusion in Gases, Liquids, and Solids

3.4. Motion of Molecules in Gases, Liquids, and Solids

3.5. Intermolecular Interaction

B. Thermal Phenomena

3.6. Internal Energy of a Body

3.7. Law of Conservation and Transformation of Energy. First Law of Thermodynamics

3.8. Temperature Gradient. Thermodynamic Temperature Scale. Absolute Zero

3.9. Heat Capacity

3.10. Experimental Determination of Specific Heat of a Substance

3.11. Heat of Combustion of a Fuel

3.12. Efficiency of a Heat Engine

3.13. Phase of a Substance. Fusion. Latent Heat of Fusion

3.14. Evaporation. Condensation. Vaporization and Boiling. Latent Heat of Vaporization

Problems with Solutions

Exercises

3.15. Temperature Coefficients of Linear and Cubic Expansion

Problems with Solutions

Exercises

C. Gas Laws

3.16. Isobaric Process. Charles’ Law

3.17. Isothermal Process. Boyle’s Law. Dalton’s Law

3.18. Isochoric Process. Gay-Lussac’s Law

3.19. Adiabatic Process

3.20. The Boyle-Charles Generalized Law. Equation of State for an Ideal Gas

3.21. The Clapeyron-Mendeleev Equation. Avogadro’s Law

3.22. Ideal Gas. Physical Meaning of Thermodynamic Temperature

3.23. Work Done by a Gas During Expansion

Problems with Solutions

Exercises

3.24. Saturated and Unsaturated Vapours. Temperature Dependence of Saturation Vapour Pressure

3.25. Absolute Humidity. Relative Humidity

3.26. Instruments for Determining Humidity

Problems with Solutions

Exercises

4. FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRODYNAMICS

A. Electrostatics

4.1. Law of Electric Charge Conservation. Electric Field. Coulomb’s Law. Effect of Medium on the Force of Interaction of Charges

4.2. Charge Equilibrium in Metals. Electrostatic Induction

4.3. Electroscope

4.4. Electric Field Strength. Electric Field Lines

4.5. Work Done on a Charge by the Forces of Electrostatic Field. Potential

4.6. Relation Between Potential and Field Strength for a Uniform Electric Field

4.7. Capacitance

4.8. Capacitors. Energy of a Charged Capacitor

Problems with Solutions

Exercises

B. Direct Current

4.9. Electric Current. Current Intensity. Electromotive Force

4.10. Ohm’s Law for a Subcircuit. Resistance of Conductors

4.11. Temperature Dependence of Resistance. Semiconductors

4.12. Series Connection of Conductors

4.13. Parallel Connection of Conductors

4.14. Rheostats

4.15. Current Sources. Ohm’s Law for a Closed Circuit

4.16. Parallel and Series Connection of Current Sources

4.17. Direct Current Power. Joule’s Law

Problems with Solutions

Exercises

4.18. Electrolysis

4.19. Faraday’s Laws of Electrolysis

Problems with Solutions

Exercises

4.20. Electric Current in Gases

4.21. Electron and Ion Beams, Their Properties and Application

4.22. Thermionic Emission.’ Electron Work Function

Problems with Solutions

Exercises

C. Magnetic Phenomena

4.23. Interaction of Currents. Magnetic Field. Magnetic Induction. Magnetic Field Lines

4.24. Force Acting on a Current-Carrying Conductor in a Magnetic Field. Magnetic Forces

4.25. Permeability of a Medium. Magnetic Field Strength

4.26. Forces of Interaction Between Parallel Current-Carrying Conductors

4.27. Magnetic Flux

4.28. Ammeter and Voltmeter

D. Electromagnetic Phenomena

4.29. Electromagnetic Induction

4.30. Induced Electromotive Force

4.31. Lenz’s Law

4.32. Self-Induction. Inductance

Problems with Solutions

Exercises

5. OSCILLATIONS AND WAVES

5.1. Oscillatory Motion. Amplitude, Period, and Frequency of Oscillations

5.2. Harmonic Oscillations. Phase of Oscillation

5.3. Pendulum. Period of Oscillations of a Mathematical Pendulum

5.4. Free and Forced Oscillations. Resonance

5.5. Waves. Velocity and Wavelength

5.6. Sonic Waves

Problems with Solutions

Exercises

5.7. Electromagnetic Oscillations and Waves

5.8. Oscillatory Circuit

Problems with Solutions

Exercises

5.9. Alternating Current. A.C. Generator

5.10. Period and Frequency of Alternating Current. Effective Current and Voltage

5.11. Transmission and Distribution of Electric Energy

5.12. Transformer

5.13. D.C. Generator

Problems with Solutions

Exercises

5.14. Electron Tubes (Valves)

5.15. Diode as a Rectifier of Alternating Current

5.16. Cathode-Ray Tube

5.17. Electron Tubes as Generators and Amplifiers

5.18. Open Oscillatory Circuit. Emission and Reception of Electromagnetic Waves

5.19. Scale of Electromagnetic Waves

Problem with Solution

Exercise

6. OPTICS

6.1. Light Sources. Propagation of Light in a Straight Line

6.2. Velocity of Light. Michelson’s Experiment

A. Photometry

6.3. Luminous Flux. Luminous Intensity

6.4. Illuminance (Illumination Intensity)

6.5. Comparison of Luminous Intensity of Different Sources. Photometers

Problems with Solutions

Exercises

B. Geometrical Optics

6.6. Law of Reflection of Light. Construction of Image Formed by a Plane Mirror

6.7. Construction of Image Formed by a Spherical Mirror. Spherical Aberration

Problems with Solutions

Exercises

6.8. Laws of Refraction of Light. Refractive Index

6.9. Total Internal Reflection. Critical Angle

6.10. Ray Path in a Plane-Parallel Plate. Ray Path in a Prism

6.11. Converging and Diverging Lenses

6.12. Lens Formula. Lens Power

6.13. Image Formation by a Lens

Problems with Solutions

Exercises

C. Optical Instruments

6.14. Searchlight. Projection Lantern

6.15. Photographic Camera

6.16. Magnifying Glass. Human Eye as an Optical Instrument

6.17. Accommodation of Eye. Myopia and Hyperopia. Spectacles

Problems with Solutions

Exercises

D. Composition of Light. Invisible Rays

6.18. Dispersion of Light. Spectrum. Spectroscope

6.19. Infrared and Ultraviolet Radiation

6.20. Emission and Absorption Spectra. Fraunhofer Lines. Spectral Analysis

6.21. On the Wave and Quantum Nature of Light

6.22. Interference of Light

6.23. Diffraction of Light

6.24. Photoelectric Effect

6.25. Photocells and Their Application

6.26. Effects of Light

Problems with Solutions

Exercise

7. STRUCTURE OF THE ATOM 492

7.1. Structure of the Atom and Its Energy

7.2. Atomic Nucleus

7.3. Radioactivity

7.4. Uranium Nuclear Fission. Chain Reaction

7.5. Binding Energy of Atomic Nucleus

Problem with Solution

Exercise

Graphical Solutions to Exercises

Appendices