Clocks and Watches – Dlugolensky

In this post, we will see the book Clocks and Watches by Yakov Dlugolensky.

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The book as the title suggests is about clocks and watches and time. We explore the variety of clocks and stories behind them.

The book is amazingly illustrated and will make any child’s imagination go places.

The book was published by Progress in 1982 and was translated from the Russian by Raissa Bobrova. The Amazing illustrations are by Vladimir Kulkov.

The Internet Archive link

All credits to Guptaji.

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A Simple Non-Euclidean Geometry And Its Physical Basis – Yaglom

In this post, we will see the book A simple non-Euclidean geometry and its physical basis: an elementary account of Galilean geometry and the Galilean principle of relativity by I. M. Yaglom.

This book is remarkable in that it relies only on precalculus 
mathematics and yet has an "idea density" exceeding that of many 
advanced texts. It is a fascinating story which flows from one 
geometry to another, from one mode) to another, from geometry to 
algebra, and from geometry to kinematics, and in so doing crosses 
artificial boundaries separating one area of mathematics from 
another and mathematics from physics. (from the Translator's preface)

About the book:

From the preface (with some added notes)

Why study non-Eucliean geometries?> The principal reason for the interest in hyperbolic geometry is the important fact of “non-uniqueness” of geometry; of the existence of many geometric systems. The non-uniqueness of geometry sheds new light on basic features of mathematics; on the role of idealization in science; on deductive knowledge (Aristotle’s “inferential knowledge”), i.e., knowledge deduced from a definite system of axioms; on the role of axiom systems in mathematics, and on the requirements that must be satisfied by such systems; and on the relation between abstract “mathematical geometry” and the “physical geometry” concerned with certain properties of physical space. The non- uniqueness of geometry already justifies the effort to dislodge from the minds of prospective high school teachers the notions that Euclidean geometry is “innate,” “unique,” “natural,” or “god-given.”

Which non-Euclidean geometries?> The book is about non-Euclidean geometries, particularly explores “Galilean geometry” as a central theme. The existence of non-Euclidean geometry was known in antiquity (for example, spherical geometry), the works of Gauss, Bolyai and Lobachevsky in early nineteenth century, systematically created the foundations of hyperbolic geometry. As in the case of the Euclidean geometry, the existence of hyperbolic geometry was not unique. Just as the fundamental discoveries of Lobachevsky (published in 1829), Bolyai (published in 1832), and Gauss destroyed the exclusive position of Euclidean geometry, so, too, the classical investigations of Riemann and Klein (almost after 30+ years) destroyed the exclusive position of hyperbolic geometry. Yaglom notes the imbalance in favour of hyperbolic geometry as the only non-Euclidean geometry

All for hyperbolic geometry> too much attention is paid in scientific and popular-scientific literature to hyperbolic geometry (for example, a number of Russian books and countless papers are concerned with as special a problem as the theory of geometric constructions in the hyperbolic plane; this in spite of the fact that the problem clearly does not merit so much attention) and too little to the remaining “non-Euclidean geometries of Klein.” The aim of this book is to help redress this imbalance by presenting a widely accessible account of one of these geometries, namely the geometry of the two-dimensional manifold of “events” (x,t) (x is the coordinate of a point on a line and t is time) whose “motions” are the Galilean transformations of classical kinematics.

Galilean Geometry and its significance> In fact, the geometry presented in this book — Galilean geometry — is the simplest of all Klein ian geometries; in many respects it is simpler than Euclidean geometry. The main distinction of this geometry is its relative simplicity, for it enables the student to study it in relative detail without losing a great deal of time and intellectual energy. Put differently, the simplicity of Galilean geometry makes its extensive development an easy matter, and extensive development of a new geometric system is a precondition for an effective comparison of it with Euclidean geometry. Also, extensive development is likely to give the student the psychological assurance of the consistency of the investigated structure. Another distinction of Galilean geometry is the fact that it exemplifies the fruitful geometric idea of duality. And last, but certainly not least, a major merit of the geometry presented in this book is that it illustrates the important connection between Klein’s Erlanger Programm and the principles of relativity, and sheds additional light on Klein^s conception as well as on the role of the principles of relativity in physics.

Whom is the book for?> The present book, with its many possibly interesting but nonessential details, is intended for high school seniors, mathematics teachers, and students and lecturers in universities and teachers’ colleges, but is not meant to be a blueprint for the reform of the curriculum of teachers’ colleges. At the moment, we are certainly not ready for such a reform. The evaluation of the questions raised above requires extensive knowledge of the geometries associated with the principles of relativity of Galileo and Einstein, whereas apparently this is the first popular scientific book to analyze in detail the geometry associated with the Galilean principle of relativity.

What is in the name?> Finally, the now popular name “Galilean geometry” is historically inaccurate: Galileo, whose works date from the beginning of the 17th century, did not in fact know this geometry, whose discovery was necessarily preceded by one of the greatest intellectual triumphs of the 19th century — the emergence of the idea that many legitimate geometric systems exist. A more accurate name would be “the geometry associated with the Galilean principle of relativity.” This name is too long for repeated use and that is why we have decided, somewhat reluctantly, to use the name “Galilean geometry.” This name is partially justified by the brilliant clarity and completeness with which Galileo formulated his principle of relativity, which leads directly to the (non -Euclidean!) geometry considered in the present book.

From a review

The main content of Yaglom’s book is the geometry of the Galilean plane with one time dimension x and one space dimension y invariant under the uniform motions

x’ = x + a
y’ = vx +y + b.

The development is primarily guided by the analogies with the concepts of Euclidean geometry, but the reader is reminded periodically of the mechanical meaning of the geometry in terms of motions on a straight line.

The Lorentz transformations of special relativity and the Minkowskian plane are developed in a separate chapter, with an illuminating section on the Galilean plane as a limiting case of the Euclidean and Minkowskian planes.

The book concludes with three appendices describing the nine geometries-here called Caley-Klein geometries-obtained by combining the three metrics, elliptic, parabolic and hyper- bolic on the (real or projective) line with the three dual metrics on the pencil of lines.

While the exposition is elementary,  a good deal of knowledge would be needed before any but the most exceptional reader can appreciate the content of these sections. This masterfully lucid book would make an excellent starting point for an undergraduate seminar in geometry.

(From the review by Straus in AMM 1982.)

The book was translated from the Russian by Abe Shenitzer
with the Editorial Assistance of Basil Gordon.

The Internet Archive link

All credits to artmisa

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Plasma Physics – Kadomtsev (Ed.)

In this post, we will see the book Plasma Physics edited by B. B. Kadomtsev.


plasma-physics-kadomtsev

About the book

This collection contains articles both original and already published in the Soviet Union in 1979-80, written by well-known Soviet scientists and devoted to the most important findings and achievements of research into the fundamental problems of plasma physics and controlled thermonuclear synthesis. The book is intended for researchers and specialists in the fields of plasma physics and thermonuclear reactions, and for anyone interested in the achievements of the Soviet Union in these areas.

The book was translated from the Russian by Oleg Glebov and was first published by Mir in 1981.

PDF | OCR | Bookmarked | Cover | 10.2 MB | 194 pp. | 300 dpi (upscaled to 600 dpi)

The Internet Archive link.

 

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The Earth in the Universe – Fedynskii (Ed.)

In this post, we will see the book The Earth In The Universe edited by V. V. Fedynskii.

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About the book:

The space age was initiated on 4 October 1957, when the first Soviet
artificial satellite was launched. Then, between 1961 and 1963, Gagarin,
Titov, Nikolaev, Popovich, Bykovskii, and Tereshkova made their heroic
entering into space. As a consequence, the science of the Earth is now
going into a new phase of reappraisal and vigorous development. The
Earth viewed from interplanetary space, the application of the advances in
physics and modern technology to the study of the Earth’s deep interior and
the remote fringes of the terrestrial atmosphere, the incorporation of new
disciplines into the science of our planet — all these call for a fresh approach
to many seemingly familiar phenomena.

This book presents a series of articles, covering a broad range of
subjects, by a group of Soviet scientists writing on some of the problems
of modern science, such as the structure of matter, the nature of physical
fields, the formation and evolution of the Earth and the universe, solar
activity and the Earth, and the interaction between the Earth’s biosphere
and physical fields. Some facts from the history of science which are
related to the “cosmization” of natural science (the emergence of science
into the reaches of outer space) are also presented. Many of the ideas
expressed in the articles of this collection draw upon the works of
great Russian scientists of the past, such as K. E. Tsiolkovskii and
V.I. Vernadskii, whose topical interest has been revived with the onset of
the space age.

The cheif editor of the book was V. V. Fedynskii, and the editorial board was comprised of I. Ya. Ballakh, A. L. Chizhevskii, V. V. Piotrovskii, and N. I. Taranov.

 

The book was translated from Russian by Israel Program for Scientific Translations in
1968. The book was published for NASA as a technical translation.

PDF | 430 pp. | 24.5 MB | OCR

The Internet Archive link.

All credits to Greg Williamson.

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Fundamentals of Physics – Ivanov

In this post, we will see the book Fundamentals of Physics by B. N. Ivanov.

00ivanov-cover

About the book:

The book being of­fered by the author differs from other existing books on the subject in its nontraditional approach to the course of phys­ics. The principle underlying the preparation of this course can be summarized as follows:  “From atom to matter”.

What prompted the author to adopt this approach? In­deed, the creation of new materials with unusual mechani­cal, thermal, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties requires a microscopic approach to the problem and a clear understanding of the practical significance of the approach “from atom to matter”. This means that the scientists and industrial workers engaged in fields like physical materials science, nuclear and semiconductor engineering, laser

This book is intended for those who wish to acquire a deeper knowledge of physical phenomena. It can be used by students of physics and mathematical schools, as well as by those who have finished school and are engaged in self- education. A good deal of the material may be useful to teachers delivering lectures on various topics of physics.

This is not a textbook, but rather a helpbook that should be used in conjunction with the standard textbooks. Nor is the book intended for a light reading; you have to use a pen and paper, think, analyze, and even compute whenever it is necessary. We shall describe physics here in the way re­ searchers understand it today.

Physics essentially deals with the fundamental laws of nature. The progress being made at present in all branches of natural science is due, as a rule, to the introduction of physical concepts and techniques in them. This is besides the fact that a knowledge of physical sciences is essential for new industrial ventures lying at the root of technical progress. Physics is fast becoming an important element in the modern civilization.

The book was published by Mir in 1989 and was translated from the Russian by R. S. Wadhwa.

PDF | OCR | Bookmarked | 15.2 MB | 459 pp. | Cover | 300 dpi (upscaled to 600 dpi)

The Internet Archive link

The book is in print in India by CBS publishers.

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The Riddle Of The Self – Mikhailov

In this post, we will see the book The Riddle Of The Self by F. T. Mikhailov.

Mikhailov-the-riddle-of-the-self-fcAbout the book:

The question of consciousness, of its relation to being cannot in principle be reduced to a particular scientific problem of the correlation of mental and physiological processes or to a problem of the reception, processing and production of information. The essence of this problem is not what happens under my skull when I calculate the trajectory of a flight to the stars, but what in philosophy is called the question of the identity of thought and being. How is it possible that a person can mentally chart the road to the stars? How and why can he, in his thoughts, conceive of the existence of the Universe? How can the infinity of time and space be contained in the in­stant of their realisation in consciousness? This is the key question of the human ability to set goals. And unless one knows one’s way through the two thousand years history of solutions to this question, one will have little chance of even framing a correct approach to any partic­ular problem of the relation between mind and brain.
That is why I have called this book The Riddle of the Self. By suggesting that the Self, the Ego presents a rid­dle I imply that there may be many different ways of tackling it. This book is not a calm and consistent academic expo­sition of compiled knowledge. It is more like a not very good transcript of a heated debate. And it is not in itself the answer to the riddle, but a discussion of how the prob­lem should be stated. It is about the method that should be used in the search.

The book was published by Progress in 1980 and was translated from the Russian by Robert Daglish. The book was designed by Vadim Kuleshov.

PDF | OCR | Bookmarked | Cover | 265 pp. | 3.2 MB

The Internet Archive link.

All credits to the original uploader.

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Albert Einstein’s Philosophical views and the Theory of Relativity – Gribanov

In this post, we will see the book Albert Einstein’s Philosophical Views and the Theory of Relativity by D. P. Gribanov. This book aims to bring out the place and role of philo­sophical science in the creation of the theory of relativity.

gribanov-albert-einstein-philosophical-views-and-the-theory-of-relativity-progress-1987-fc

About the book:

This book presents the first integral treatment of the philosophical views of Albert Einstein and their influence on the origin and inter­pretation of the theory of relati­vity. It brings out the specific features of the philosophical com­ prehension of the theory of relativity m the world and Soviet literature, and analyses the influence of the new relativistic physical ideas in enriching and developing the tradi­tional philosophical categories of matter, space, time, and motion.

The book was first published by Progress Publishers in 1987 and was translated from the Russian by H. Campbell Creighton. The book was designed by Vyacheslav Serebryakov.

PDF | Cover | OCR | Bookmarked | 300 dpi (upscaled to 600 dpi) | 8.7 MB | 275 pp.

The Internet Archive link.

Thanks to gnowgi for the book.

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