Vasilisa the Beautiful – Russian Fairy Tales

In this post, we will see the book Beautiful Vasilisa: Russian Fairy Tales. Vasilisa the Beautiful is a well known Russian folktale.

vasilisa

About the book

The book is a collection of sixteen fairy tales from Russia. They include stories of Tsars, Princesses, witches, boys, girls, various animals, and magical creatures. There are several fabulous illustrations to go with the stories. Along with the story of Vasilisa, there are 15 other tales in the book.

Baba Yaga is here (not the John Wick one though;)!

baba-yaga

The book was edited by Irina Zheleznova and was designed by Vladimir Minayev. The book was published by RAduga first in 1966, with four reprints in the subsequent years: 1974, 1981 and 1984. Different stories were translated by various translators as given in the contents. 

The book was translated in Hindi and Marathi, at least what I know of. Since it was a popular title it might have been translated into more Indian languages. Please do let us know if you know/have translations in any other languages.

Links

English Version 1

(original scan of the Raduga 4th reprint)

English Version 2

(scan OCRed text made into an electronic document with the images, thanks to Guptaji)

Hindi Version – Roopvati Vasilisa – Rusi Parikathyein

Note: There is a bad scan of the Hindi version on the archive, which we have cleaned and added back (the link above), with a lot of effort and time. It took much longer to clean it than anticipated, yet the results are not that good or satisfactory. I thought of abandoning the cleaning midway several times, but since no other scan was available, it was indeed cleaned.

It is an appeal to people who scan books, to take some time and effort to scan them, (preferably using flatbed scanners) otherwise, it doesn’t do anyone any good. If you are taking photos with a camera make sure that noticeable warp is not there. Perhaps when one gets the physical copy of the book we will update this one, or if you have the book please scan and post the link.

Marathi Version – Sundar Vasilisa – Russian Parikatha

Screenshot 2019-12-05 at 7.58.10 PM.png

Bonus

There is also a Soviet-era cartoon film (in Russian, 1977)  with the title Vasilisa Prekrasnaya (Vasilia the Beautiful) though this corresponds to story The Frog Tsarvena (Tsarevna Lyagushka) in the book. The visuals are amazing…

Screenshot 2019-12-05 at 7.30.43 PMScreenshot 2019-12-05 at 7.29.09 PM

https://archive.org/details/VasilisaTheBeautifull1977VasilisaPrekrasnayaENES

Another Soviet era (1939) BW film I found with the title Vasilisa Prekrasnaya (Vasilia the Beautiful) again this corresponds to story The Frog Tsarvena (Tsarevna Lyagushka) in the book.

screenshot-2019-12-05-at-7.49.33-pm.png

Contents

VASILISA THE BEAUTIFUL. Translated by Irina Zheleznova 5
TSAREVICH IVAN AND GREY WOLF. Translated by Bernard Isaacs 20
THE TWO IVANS. Translated by Irina Zheleznova 33
FENIST THE FALCON. Translated by Dorian Rottenberg 43
SISTER ALYONUSHKA AND BROTHER IVANUSHKA. Translated by Bernard Isaacs 57 CHESTNUT-GREY. Translated by Irina Zheleznova 63
FATHER FROST Translated by Irina Zheleznova 74
GO I KNOW NOT WHERE, FETCH I KNOW NOT WHAT. Translated by Bernard Isaacs 79 LITTLE GIRL AND THE SWAN-GEESE. Translated by Bernard Isaacs 109
THE SILVER SAUCER AND THE ROSY-CHEEKED APPLE. Translated by Irina Zheleznova 115

BY THE WILL OF THE PIKE. Translated by Irina Zheleznova 124
THE FROG TSAREVNA. Translated by Irina Zheleznova 135
WEE LITTLE HAVROSHECHKA. Translated by Irina Zheleznova 147
MARYA MOREVNA THE LOVELY TSAREVNA. Translated by Irina Zheleznova 152
IVAN-YOUNG OF YEARS, OLD OF WISDOM. Translated by Dorian Rottenberg 169
THE SEVEN SIMEONS-SEVEN BRAVE WORKINGMEN. Translated by Irina Zhelez­nova 201

 

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Fundamentals Of Geology – Obruchev

In this post, we will see the book Fundamentals of Geology by V. Obruchev.

About the book (from the Preface)

Hence, we are entitled to say that every person should be acquainted with its (geology’s) basic principles. And the purpose of this book is to impart him this knowledge. Geology, therefore, can-not be a collection of stories about interesting things, mysterious events, or instructive comparisons taken at random from the vast realm of science, it must be expounded systematically. The reader will become acquainted with the activity of nature’s forces which he can personally observe in the neighbourhood of his town or village, in the highlands or on the plains, with the work of running, still and ground waters, with the activity of the wind and ice and with its results, visible both in the rock  formations which make up the land forms and in the destruction and transformation of the latter.

When the reader has become acquainted with the work of these forces, which we call external, he will be told of other forces hidden in the bowels of the Earth which give vent to their energy in mountain-building, eruption of volcanoes and earthquakes. Then, he will be given a brief outline of the Earth’s history, of the origin and development of life and he will be told about the catastrophic events that have taken place during this time. He will learn of the formation of useful minerals and the regularity of their occurrence, especially in the U.S.S.R. The concluding chapter deals with geological documents and the
methods used in studying traces of past events which throw light on the Earth’s history.

This book, naturally, cannot embrace the entire realm of geology; it is confined to physical or dynamic geology, a branch dealing with the activity of the external and internal forces which shape and change the Earth’s crust. Very little is said of historical geology, which covers a wide field of the history of the Earth, and only scanty attention is paid to the science of useful deposits — the third branch of geology which examines the results of the activity of the natural forces.

Of the fourth branch — petrography or petrology — the science of rock formations that make up the earth’s crust, we give only the essentials. Physical geology is an introduction to these more specialized branches of geology and the book serves this purpose.

It is a popular book, designed for young readers who are acquainted with the rudiments of physics and chemistry.

The book was translated from the Russian by David Myshne and Persy Ludwick and was published by Foreign Languages Publishing House in 1959 (from worldcat entry). This book was digitised in the Digital Library of India project, as it has Osmania University stamp. And has three different links as given under (same book in all the links).

The Internet Archive Link 1

The Internet Archive Link 2

The Internet Archive Link 3

 

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Contents

Introduction 5

I. What the Brook Murmurs 9

II. At the Sea-Shore 37

III. How Water Works Underground 58

IV. Rock Weathering 75

V. Wind Action 99

VI. Travelling Stones 127

VII. Products of the Earth’s Entrails 164

VIII. Building and Destruction of Mountains 204

IX. Why the Earth Shakes Now Here and Now There 242

X. Brief History of Our Earth 258

XI. Catastrophes in the History of the Earth 292

XII. What Riches the Earth Contains 329

XIII. The Young Pathfinder 351

Russian Bibliography 372

 

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Dear Internet Archive Supporter,

I ask only once a year: please help the Internet Archive today. Right now, we have a 2-to-1 Matching Gift Campaign, so you can triple your impact! Most can’t afford to give, but we hope you can. The average donation is $45. If everyone reading this chips in just $5, we can end this fundraiser today. All we need is the price of a paperback book to sustain a non-profit website the whole world depends on. We have only 150 staff but run one of the world’s top websites. We’re dedicated to reader privacy so we never track you. We never accept ads. But we still need to pay for servers and staff. I know we could charge money, but then we couldn’t achieve our mission: a free online library for everyone. This is our day. Today. To bring the best, most trustworthy information to every internet reader. I believe all of this is doable, if we pull together to create the internet as it was meant to be. The Great Library for all. The Internet Archive is a bargain, but we need your help. If you find our site useful, please chip in. Thank you.
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Posted in books, chemistry, foreign languages publishing, geology, physics, science, science for everyone, soviet | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Mir Titles Collection at The Internet Archive

Screenshot 2019-11-20 at 3.15.58 PM.png

This post is to announce that we now have a collection at The Internet Archive. Please have a look at the collection at the URL:

https://archive.org/details/mir-titles

Earlier link posted was the channel for the user mirtitles at the URL:

https://archive.org/details/@mirtitles

Some of you might be wondering what is the difference between the two?

A user channel will list only the titles added by that user, while a collection can encompass additions from other users also. In this collection, we will try to add other titles added by other users so that we have all of them under one comprehensive resource.

Both the links are working, this is just for your information. By default, the collection lists the titles by their Views (most views at the top), while the user channel lists the latest uploads first. These views can be changed from the sorting options on the page.  Screenshot 2019-11-20 at 3.14.18 PM

Next on the agenda is to revive all the non-working links and fixing some minor issues reported on many books (missing pages etc.).

We might see some Kannada language books soon.

Also, many thanks to @mukundhp11 who has been contributing books recently.

Posted in books, meta, soviet | Tagged , , , | 4 Comments

Problems And Exercises In General Chemistry – N.L. Glinka

About The Book

From the Back Cover

Professor N. Glinka’s book Problems and Exercises in General Chemistry closely corresponds to the well- known textbook General Chemistry by the same author.

Mir Publishers have prepared an English translation of the latest, 21st Russian edition of the textbook, which has been divided into two volumes to facilitate work with the book.

Many generations of students used N. Glinka’s General Chemistry in studying the subject; secondary school graduates used it in preparing for their entrance examinations to higher educational establishments, and specialists of non-chemical professions often find answers to their questions in it.

(from the preface)

In addition to problems and exercises of a traditional form, many sections of the present book contain review questions that will permit the student to see how well he or she has mastered the relevant material. Each question is followed by a set of answers, from among which one or more correct ones must be chosen; sometimes it is also necessary to sub­stantiate the answer by selecting the correct explanation from among a number of choices following the question. Should the chosen answer fail to coincide completely or partly with those given at the end of the book, this will indi­cate that the student must again study the introductory text to the given section, or the relevant material in the textbook.

The book was edited by V. A. Rabinovich and Kh. M. Rubina and was translated from the Russian by G. Leib. First published by Mir in 1981, second publishing in 1986.

With this we have completed the General Chemistry Series by N.L. Glinka. Having read all the three books anyone will be completely prepared for 10+2 Physical and Inorganic Chemistry. I would once again heartily thank Amit for his big help and support. Highly appreciated!

The Internet Archive Link https://archive.org/details/glinkaproblemsingeneralchemistrymir

PDF | Bookmarked | Paginated | Cover | 290 pp

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Contents

Preface 5

Chapter 1. Simple Stoichiometric Calculations 11

  1. Equivalent. Law of Equivalents 11
  2. Fundamental Gas Laws 15
  3. Partial Pressure of a Gas 18
  4. The Mole. Avogadro’s Law. Molar Volume of a Gas 21
  5. Determining the Molecular Masses of Gaseous Substances 26
  6. Derivation of Chemical Formulas. Calculations Involving Chemical Formulas and Equations 29

Chapter 2. Basic Classes of Inorganic Compounds 35

Chapter 3. Structure of the Atom. Radioactivity 45

  1. Electronic Structure of Atoms. Dependence of Element Properties on the Structure of Their Atoms 45
  2. Structure of Atomic Nuclei. Radioactivity. Nuc­lear Reactions 53

Chapter 4. The Chemical Bond 59

  1. Kinds of Chemical Bond. Ways of Forming a Co­valent Bond 59
  2. Molecular Polarities. Geometrical Structure of Molecules 68
  3. Ionic Bond. Polarization of Ions 74
  4. Hydrogen Bond. Intermolecular Interaction 77

Chapter 5. Fundamental Laws of Chemical Reactions 80

  1. Energy Conversions in Reactions. Thermochemical Calculations 80
  2. Rate of a Chemical Reaction. Chemical Equilibrium 95

Chapter 6. Solutions 114

  1. Concentration of Solutions. Solubility 114
  2. Energy Effects in the Formation of Solutions 123
  3. Physicochemical Properties of Dilute Solutions of Non-Electrolytes 125

Chapter 7. Solutions of Electrolytes 132

  1. Weak Electrolytes. Dissociation Constant and Degree of Dissociation 132
  2. Strong Electrolytes. Activity of Ions 141
  3. Ion Product of Water. pH 143
  4. Solubility Product 148
  5. Exchange Reactions in Electrolyte Solutions. Hydrolysis of Salts 154

Chapter 8. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions. Fundamentals of Electrochemistry 165

  1. Oxidation Number. Oxidation and Reduction 165
  2. Oxidizing and Reducing Agents 169
  3. Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Equations 175
  4. Chemical Sources of Electrical Energy. Electrode Potentials 182
  5. Direction of Oxidatiop-Reduction Reactions 191
  6. Electrolysis 195

Chapter 9. Complex Compounds 203

  1. Determining the Composition of a Complex Ion 203
  2. Nomenclature of Complex Compounds 205
  3. Equilibria in Solutions of Complex Compounds 207

Chapter 10. General Properties of Metals. Alloys 212

Chapter 11. The Periodic System of Elements. Properties of Elements and Their Compounds 219

  1. General 219
  2. Hydrogen 220
  3. The Halogens 222
  4. Oxygen Subgroup Elements 225
  5. Nitrogen Subgroup Elements 229
  6. Carbon and Silicon 236
  7. Group I Metals 238
  8. Group II Metals. Water Hardness 241
  9. Group III Elements 245
  10. Metals of Groups IVi V, VI, andVII 247
  11. The Noble Gases. Group VIIIMetals 251

Appendix

Table 1. Selected SI Units 255

Table 2. Conversion of Selected Non-System Units to SI Units 256

Table 3. Values of Selected Fundamental Physical Constants 256

Table 4. Names of Most Important Acids and Their Salts 256

Table 5. Standard Enthalpies of Formation 258

Table 6. Dissociation Constants of Selected Weak Electrolytes in Aqueous Solutions at 25 °C 260 Table 7. Activity Coefficients of Ions at Different Ionic Strengths of Solution 262

Table 8. Solubility Product Agp of Selected Spar­ingly Soluble Electrolytes at 25 °C 263

Table 9. Standard Electrode Potentials q>° in Aqueous Solutions a t 25 °C 264

Table 10. Instability Constants of Selected Complex Ions in Aqueous Solutions at 25 °C 266

Table 11.Atomic Masses to Four Significant Figures 266

Mendeleev’s Periodic Table of the Elements 270

Mendeleev’s Periodic Table 270

Four Place Logarithms 272

Answers to Problems 276

Index 284

Posted in books, chemistry, metals, mir publishers | Tagged , , , , , | 2 Comments

General Chemistry Volume 2 – N.L. Glinka

In this post we will see the Volume 2 of General Chemistry series written by Nikolai Glinka and edited by V. Rabinovich.

About the book ( From the Back Cover)

Professor N. Glinka’s textbook systematizes the theoretical aspects and includes an extensive collection of reference data tor the course in general chemistry. Great attention is given to the structure of atoms and molecules, the laws of chemical reactions, and oxidation-reduction, processes. The book has been very popular in the Soviet Union and other countries for many years. During the author’s life, it saw 12 editions in Russian and was repeatedly published in other languages. The time that has elapsed after the author’s death, however required the introduction of appreciable amendments into the book, first of all because of the deep penetration of chemistry into many branches of the national economy and of the tremendous growth in the volume of the factual material of chemistry. The required revision of the textbook was carried out in its sixteenth Russian edition (1973). An additional revision of the book mainly due to the transition to SI units of physical quantities and the associated alterations in the terminology was carried out in the nineteenth Russian edition (1977). The present English text has been translated from the 21st Russian edition (1980), and to facilitate work with the book, has been divided into two volumes. The book is intended for students of higher educational institutions not majoring in chemistry. It will also be very helpful for persons studying the fundamentals of chemistry independently, and for students of chemical technical schools and the senior classes of secondary schools.

This book was hugely popular in the Soviet Union and other countries for many years. It was first published in 1958 and revised from the 1980 enlarged and updated Russian edition. Like Volume 1 this book is written in an engaging and easy to understand language. General Chemistry Volume 1&2 together cover completely the Physical and Inorganic Chemistry at 10+2 level. Nikolai Glinka wrote a problem book called Problems And Exercises In General Chemistry accompanying these two volumes and which is likewise a brilliant book. We will see it in the next post.

Thank you very much TheMitr for helping me make the post.

Internet Archive Link https://archive.org/details/glinkageneralchemistryvol2mir

PDF | OCR | Bookmarked | Paginated

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Write to us: mirtitles@gmail.com

Contents

Chapter XI Hydrogen

Hydrogen in nature. Obtaining hydrogen. Hydrogen Properties and Application. Hydrogen peroxide

Chapter XII. Halogens

Halogens in Nature. Physical properties of halogens. Halogen Chemical Properties. Halogen collection and application. Halogen compounds with hydrogen. Oxygenated halogen compounds

Chapter XIII Main subgroup of the sixth group

Oxygen. Oxygen in nature. Air. Oxygen uptake and properties. Ozone

Sulfur, Selenium, Tellurium
Sulfur in Nature. Sulfur Obtaining. Sulfur Properties and Application. Hydrogen sulphide. Sulphides. Sulfur dioxide. Sulfuric acid. Sulfur trioxide. Sulfuric acid. Obtaining and applying sulfuric acid. Peroxodisulfuric acid. Thiosulfuric acid. Sulfur compounds with halogens. Selenium. Tellurium

Chapter XIV. Main subgroup of the fifth group

Nitrogen. Nitrogen in nature. Obtaining and properties of nitrogen. Ammonia Ammonium Salts. Fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. Obtaining Ammonia. Hydrazine. Hydroxylamine. Hydrogen azide
Nitrogen oxides. Nitrous acid. Nitric acid. Industrial preparation of nitric acid. Nitrogen cycle in nature

Phosphor
Phosphorus in nature. Phosphorus attainment and properties. Phosphorus compounds with hydrogen and halogens. Phosphorus oxides and acids. Mineral fertilizers

Arsenic, Antimony, Bismuth
Arsenic. Antimony. Bismuth

Chapter XV Main subgroup of the fourth group

Carbon
Carbon in Nature. Carbon allotropy. Chemical properties of carbon. Carbides. Carbon dioxide. Carbonic acid. Carbon oxide. Sulfur and nitrogen carbon compounds. Fuel and its types. Gaseous fuel

Organic compounds
General characteristic of organic compounds. Specific features of organic compounds. Theory of the chemical structure of organic compounds. Classification of Organic Compounds. Saturated hydrocarbons. Unsaturated Hydrocarbons. Cyclic saturated hydrocarbons. Aromatic hydrocarbons. Halogen derivatives of hydrocarbons. Alcohols and phenols. Ethers. Aldehydes and Ketones. Carboxylic acids. Carboxylic acid esters. Fats. Carbohydrates. Amines. Amino acids and proteins. High molecular weight natural and synthetic compounds (polymers)

Silicon
Silicon in Nature, Obtaining and Properties of Silicon. Hydrogen and halogen silicon compounds. Silicon dioxide. Silicic acids and their salts. Glass. Pottery. Cement. Organo silicic compounds

Tin, lead, germanium
Germanium .Tin .Lead Lead accumulator

Chapter XVI General properties of metals. Alloys

Physical and chemical properties of metals. Electronic structure of metals, insulators and semiconductors. Crystal structure of metals. Obtaining metals from ores. Obtainment of high purity metals. Alloys. Phase diagrams of metal systems. Corrosion of metals

Chapter XVII First group of the Periodic System

Alkali metals
Alkali metals in nature. Obtaining and properties of alkali metals. Sodium. Potassium

Copper Subgroup
Copper. Silver. Gold

Chapter XVIII. Complex compounds

Main theses of coordination theory. Principal types and nomenclature of complex compounds. Spatial structure and isomerism of complex compounds. Nature of chemical bonding in complex compounds. Stability of complex compounds in solutions. Influence of coordination on the properties of ligands and the central atom

Chapter XIX Second group of the Periodic System

Main subgroup of the second group
Beryllium. Magnesium. Calcium. Hardness of natural waters and their elimination. Strontium. Barium

Secondary subgroup of the second group
Zinc. Cadmium. Mercury

Chapter XX Third group of the Periodic System

Main subgroup of third group
Boron. Aluminum. Gallium. Indian. Thallium

Secondary subgroup of the third group. Lanthanides. Actinides
Scandium Subgroup. Lanthanides. Actinides

Chapter XXI Secondary subgroups of the fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh groups

General feature of transition elements

Titanium Subgroup
Titanium. Zirconium. Hafnium.

Vanadium Subgroup
Vanadium. Niobium. Tantalum

Chrome subgroup
Chromium. Molybdenum. Wolfram

Manganese Subgroup
Manganese. Rhenium

Chapter XXII. Eighth group of the Periodic System

Noble gases
General characteristic of noble gases. Helium. Neon. Argon

Secondary subgroup of the eighth group

Iron Series
Iron. Abundance in Nature. Importance of iron and its alloys in the technique. Iron Physical Properties, Phase Diagram of the Iron – Carbon System. Pig iron and steel production. Heat treatment of steel. Iron alloys. Chemical properties of iron. Iron compounds. Cobalt. Nickel

Platinum Group Metals
General feature of metals. Platinum. Palladium. Iridium

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General Chemistry Volume 1 – N.L. Glinka

In this post ( my debut post on mirtitles.org and the site’s 375th !) we will see an amazing book on chemistry titled General Chemistry Volume 1 by Nikolai Glinka and edited by Veniamin Rabinovich.

About the book ( From the Back Cover)

Professor N. Glinka’s textbook systematizes the theoretical aspects and includes an extensive collection of reference data tor the course in general chemistry. Great attention is given to the structure of atoms and molecules, the laws of chemical reactions, and oxidation-reduction, processes. The book has been very popular in the Soviet Union and other countries for many years. During the author’s life, it saw 12 editions in Russian and was repeatedly published in other languages. The time that has elapsed after the author’s death, however required the introduction of appreciable amendments into the book, first of all because of the deep penetration of chemistry into many branches of the national economy and of the tremendous growth in the volume of the factual material of chemistry. The required revision of the textbook was carried out in its sixteenth Russian edition (1973). An additional revision of the book mainly due to the transition to SI units of physical quantities and the associated alterations in the terminology was carried out in the nineteenth Russian edition (1977). The present English text has been translated from the 21st Russian edition (1980), and to facilitate work with the book, has been divided into two volumes. The book is intended for students of higher educational institutions not majoring in chemistry. It will also be very helpful for persons studying the fundamentals of chemistry independently, and for students of chemical technical schools and the senior classes of secondary schools.

This book was hugely popular in the Soviet Union and other countries for many years. It was first published in 1958 and revised from the 1980 enlarged and updated Russian edition. Seriously though I have never read a book before this one that had explained General Chemistry in such an elucidating manner. Especially the way the chapter The Fundamentals of Chemical Reactions is explained is amazing. The Volume 1 and Volume 2 together contains everything from Inorganic Chemistry that we read in 10+2. Thank you very much The Mitr for cleaning and bookmarking the pdf and helping me make my first post. Volume 2 to follow.

The Internet Archive Link  

PDF | OCR | Bookmarked | Paginated

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Contents

Preface to the Third English Edition 5

Introduction 11

1. Matter and Its Motion 11 2. Substances and Their Changes. The Subject of Chemistry 12 3. The Importance of Chemistry. Chemistry in the National Economy of the USSR 13

Chapter 1. The Atomic and Molecular Concept 15

4. Law of Conservation of Mass 16 5. Essence of the Atomic and Molecular Concept 18 6. Elementary Substance and Chemical Element 20 7. Law of Definite Proportions. Law of Multiple Proportions 22 8. Law of Combining Volumes. Avogadro Law 24 9. Atomic and Molecular Masses. The Mole 25 10. Determining the Molecular Masses of Gaseous Substances 27 11. Partial Pressure of a Gas 30 12. Equivalent. Law of Equivalents 31 13. Determination of Atomic Masses. Valence 33 14. Chemical Symbols 37 15. Most Important Classes of Inorganic Substances 38 16. Chemical Calculations 44

Chapter 2. Mendeleev’s Periodic Law 48

17. Mendeleev’s Periodic Law 48 18. The Periodic Table of Elements 50 19. Significance of the Periodic Table 55

Chapter 3. Structure of the Atom. Development of the Periodic Law 58 20. Radioactivity 58 21. Nuclear Model of the Atom 61 22. Atomic Spectra 63 23. The Quantum Theory of Light 65 24. Structure of an Atom’s Electron Shell According to Bohr 69 25. Initial Concepts of Quantum Mechanics 72 26. Wave Function 74 27. Energy State of an Electron in an Atom 76 28. Principal Quantum Number 79 29. Orbital Quantum Number. Shapes of Electron Clouds 80 30. Magnetic and Spin Quantum Numbers 86 31. Many-Electron Atoms 89 32. The Pauli Exclusion Principle. Electron Configuration of Atoms and the Periodic Table 91 33. The Dimensions of Atoms and Ions 103 34. Ionization Energy and Affinity to Electron 105 35. Structure of Atomic Nuclei. Isotopes 108 36. Radioactive Elements and Their Decay 111 37. Artificial Radioactivity. Nuclear Reactions 115

Chapter 4. The Chemical Bond and the Structure of Molecules 119

38. The Theory of Chemical Structure 120 39. Covalent Bond. The Method of Valence Bonds 124 40. Non-Polar and Polar Covalent Bond 129 41. Ways of Forming a Covalent Bond 133 42. Direction of a Covalent Bond 138 43. Hybridization of Atomic Electron Orbitals 141 44. Multiple-Centre Bonds 145 45. The Method of Molecular Orbitals 148 46. Ionic Bond 158 47. Hydrogen Bond 162

Chapter 5. The Structure of Solids and Liquids 165 48. Intermolecular Interaction 165 49. The Crystalline State of a Substance 166 50. The Internal Structure of Crystals 168 51. Real Crystals 171 52. The Amorphous State of a Substance 172 53. Liquids 173

Chapter 6. Fundamental Laws of Chemical Reactions 175 54. Energy Conversions in Reactions 175 55. Thermochemistry 176 56. Thermochemical Calculations 178 57. Rate of a Chemical Reaction 180 58. Dependence of Reaction Rate on the Reactant Concentrations 182 59. Dependence of Reaction Rate on the Temperature and Nature of the Reactants 184 60. Catalysis 187 61. Reaction Rate in Heterogeneous Systems 190 62. Chain Reactions 191 63. Irreversible and Reversible Reactions. Chemical Equilibrium 193 64. Displacement of Chemical Equilibrium. Le Chatelier’s Principle 196 65. Factors Determining the Direction of Chemical Reactions 200 66. Thermodynamic Quantities. Internal Energy and Enthalpy 205 67. Thermodynamic Quantities. Entropy and Gibbs Energy 208 68. Standard Thermodynamic Quantities. Chemico-Thermodynamic Calculations 211

Chapter 7. Water. Solutions 216

69. Water in Nature 216 70. The Physical Properties of Water 217 71. Phase Diagram of Water 220 72. The Chemical Properties of Water 223 73. A Characteristic of Solutions. The Dissolving Process 224 74. Concentration of Solutions 225 75. Hydrates and Crystal Hydrates 227 76. Solubility 229 77. Supersaturated Solutions 234 78. Osmosis 235 79. Vapour Pressure of Solutions 238 80. Freezing and Roiling of Solutions 240

Chapter 8. Solutions of Electrolytes 243

81. Features of Solutions of Salts, Acids, and Bases 243 82. The Theory of Electrolytic Dissociation 245 83. The Dissociation Process 247 84. Degree of Dissociation. Strength of Electrolytes 248 85. Dissociation Constant 249 86. Strong Electrolytes 252 87. Properties of Acids, Bases, and Salts from the Viewpoint of the Theory of Electrolytic Dissociation 255 88. Net Ionic Equations 258 89. Solubility Product 261 90. Dissociation of Water. pH 263 91. Shift of Ionic Equilibria 266 92. Hydrolysis of Salts 270

Chapter 9. Oxidation-Reduction Reaction. Fundamentals of Electrochemistry 277 93.

Oxidation of Elements 277 94. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions 278 95. Compiling Equations of Oxidation-Reduction Reactions 279 96. Most Important Oxidizing and Reducing Agents 283 97. Oxidation-Reduction Duality. Intramolecular OxidationReduction 284 98. Chemical Sources of Electrical Energy 286 99. Electrode Potentials 292 100. Electromotive Series of Metals 303 101. Electrolysis 306 102. Laws of Electrolysis 311 103. Electrolysis in Industry 312 104. Electrochemical Polarization. Overvoltage 315

Chapter 10. Dispersed Systems. Colloids 318 105.

The Dispersed State of a Substance. Dispersed Systems 318 106. State of a Substance at a Phase Interface 323 107. Colloids and Colloidal Dispersions 325 108. Dispersion Analysis. Optical and Molecular-Kinetic Properties of Dispersed Systems 330 109. Sorption and Sorption Processes. Molecular Adsorption 333 110. Ion-Exchange Adsorption 337 111. Chromatography 340 112. Electrokinetic Phenomena 343 113. Stability and Coagulation of Dispersed Systems 346 114. Structure Formation in Dispersed Systems. The Physicochemical Mechanics of Solids and Dispersed Structures 351

Name Index 357

Subject Index 359

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A Modern Handbook of Physics – Yavorsky and Detlaf

In this post, we will see the much-awaited book A Modern Handbook of Physics by B. M. Yavorksy and A. A. Detlaf.

IMG_20190707_0001

About the book (From the Preface)

The basic sciences and physics, in particular, are of prime importance today in the training of engineers for the various branches of the national economy. This has led to fundamental changes in recent years in the teaching of physics in engineering institutes, and to the students of other educational institutions in which they do not major in physics. The scope and scientific level of physics courses have been substantially supplemented and cover the main trends in the development of modern physics. Consequently, the physics textbooks for engineering students have inevitably become three-volume editions of almost fifteen hundred pages. The need has arisen, in this connection, for a concise handbook on this subject.

The aim of the authors was to fulfill this need. In scope and depth this handbook includes all of the definitions, formulas and information covered in the most comprehensive and up-to-date physics courses of engineering institutes
and the physics departments of universities and colleges. Physical laws are concisely formulated, all the necessary explanations are given and, in many cases, derivations as well. Though it plays a vital role in the teaching of physics, experimental material has been omitted. This is due only to a lack of space. All the units and symbols comply with the requirements of the SI Units of physical quantities and systems of units are listed and dealt with in a short appendix.

This handbook is designed primarily for engineering students, as well as college and university students studying, but not majoring in physics. It can be used to advantage by engineers and graduate students, as well as by instructors and lecturers of intermediate schools and colleges.

Mathematical knowledge required in using the handbook is within the scope of the ordinary mathematics courses of engineering institutes. The detailed index and the numerous cross references, indicating the chapter, section and subsection, are of aid in finding any required information.

The book was translated from the Russian by Nicholas Weinstein and was published by Mir in 1982. This is called the “Modern” handbook, as there exists another “Handbook of Physics” by the same authors which is about 1000 pages long.

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Contents

Front Cover 1
Title Page 7
Contents 9
Preface 21

PART ONE MECHANICS 23

CHAPTER 1 KINEMATICS 23
1.1 Mechanical Motion. The Subject Matter of Mechanics 23
1.2 Frames of Reference. Path, Path Length and Displacement Vector of a Particle 24
1.3 Velocity 28
1.4 Acceleration 31
1.5 Translational and Rotary Motion of a Rigid Body 33

CHAPTER 2 NEWTON’S LAWS 38
2.1 Newton’s First Law. Inertial Frames of Reference 38
2.2 Force 39
2.3 Mass. Momentum 42
2.4 Newton’s Second Law 44
2.5 Newton’s Third Law. Motion of the Centre of Mass 46
2.6 Motion of a Body of Variable Mass 48
2.7 Law of Conservation of Momentum 50
2.8 Galilean Transformations. Mechanical Principle of Relativity 52

CHAPTER 3 WORK AND MECHANICAL ENERGY 55
3.1 Energy, Work and Power 55
3.2 Kinetic Energy 60
3.3 Potential Energy 63
3.4 Law of Conservation of Mechanical Energy 67
3.5 Perfectly Elastic and Inelastic Collisions 70

CHAPTER 4 DYNAMICS OF ROTARY MOTION 74
4.1 Moment of Force and Angular Momentum 74
4.2 Moment of Inertia 78
4.3 The Fundamental Law in the Dynamics of Rotary Motion 81
4.4 Law of Conservation of Angular Momentum 85

CHAPTER 5 FUNDAMENTALS OF THE SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY 88
5.1 Postulates of the Special Theory of Relativity 88
5.2 Simultaneity of Events. Synchronization of Clocks 91
5.3 Lorentz’s Transformations 93
5.4 Relativity of Lengths and Time Intervals. Time Interval Between Two Events 94 453
5.5 Transformation of Velocities and Accelerations in Relativistic Kinematics 100
5.6 Basic Law of Relativistic Dynamics 103
5.7 Mass-Energy Relation 105

CHAPTER 6 GRAVITATION 108
6.1 Law of Universal Gravitation 108
6.2 Gravitational Field 111
6.3 Kepler’s Laws. Space Velocities 116

CHAPTER 7 MOTION IN NONINERTIAL FRAMES OF REFERENCE 119
7.1 Kinematics of Relative Motion 119
7.2 Inertial Forces 121
7.3 Relative Motion in a Frame of Reference Fixed to the Earth. Gravity Force and Weight of a Body 123
7.4 Principle of Equivalence 127

PART TWO FUNDAMENTALS OF MOLECULAR PHYSICS AND THERMODYNAMICS 130

CHAPTER 8 IDEAL GASES 130
8.1 Subject Matter of Molecular Physics.Thernal Motion 130
8.2 Statistical and Thermodynamic Methods of Investigation 131
8.3 Thermodynamic Variables. Equations of State. Thermodynamic Processes 133
8.4 Equation of State of an Ideal Gas 136

CHAPTER 9 FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 138
9.1 Total and Internal Energy of a System 138
9.2 Heat and Work 141
9.3 First Law of Thermodynamics 144
9.4 Graphical Representation of Thermodynamic Processes and Work 145
9.5 Heat Capacity of Matter. Applying the First Law of Thermodynamics to Isoprocesses in an Ideal Gas 147

CHAPTER 10 KINETIC THEORY OF GASES 155
10.1 Certain Information on Classical Statistical Physics 155
10.2 Basic Equation of the Kinetic Theory of Gases 156
10.3 Maxwell’s Molecular Velocity and Energy Distribution Law (Maxwell’s Distribution Law) 158
10.4 Particle Distribution in a Potential Force Field (Boltzmann Distribution) 163
10.5 Mean Free Path of Molecules 165
10.6 Principle of the Equipartition of Energy. Internal Energy of an Ideal Gas 166
10.7 Heat Capacity of Monatomic, Diatomic and Polyatomic Gases 169
10.8 Transport Phenomena in Gases 174
10.9 Properties of Rarified Gases 179

CHAPTER 11 SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 181
11.1 Cycles. The Carnot Cycle 181
11.2 Reversible and Irreversible Processes 185
11.3 Second Law of Thermodynamics 186
11.4 Entropy and Free Energy 189
11.5 Statistical Interpretation of the Second Law of Thermodynamics 192
11.6 Fluctuations 193
11.7 Brownian Movement 196
11.8 Third Law of Thermodynamics 197

CHAPTER 12 REAL GASES AND VAPOURS 198
12.1 Forces of Intermolecular Interaction 198
12.2 Van der Waals Equation of State 204
12.3 Isothermals of Real Gases. Phase Transitions 206
12.4 Superfluidity of Helium 209

CHAPTER 13 LIQUIDS 211
13.1 Certain Properties of Liquids 211
13.2 Frenkel’s Hole Theory of the Liquid State 212
13.3 Diffusion and Viscosity Phenomena in Liquids 214
13.4 Surface Tension of Liquids 215
13.5 Wetting and Capillary Phenomena 217
13.6 Vaporization and Boiling of Liquids 221

PART THREE ELECTRODYNAMICS 224

CHAPTER 14 ELECTRIC CHARGES. COULOMB’S LAW 224
14.1 Introduction 224
14.2 Coulomb’s Law 225

CHAPTER 15 ELECTRIC FIELD STRENGTH AND DISPLACEMENT 228
15.1 Electric Field. Field Strength 228
15.2 Principle of Superposition of Electric Fields 230
15.3 Electric Displacement. Ostrogradsky-Gauss Electric Flux Theorem 234

CHAPTER 16 ELECTRIC FIELD POTENTIAL 238
16.1 Work Done in Moving an Electric Charge in an Electrostatic Field 238
16.2 Potential of an Electrostatic Field 240
16.3 Relation Between the Potential and Strength of an Electrostatic field 244
16.4 Conductors in an Electrostatic Field 246

CHAPTER 17 CAPACITANCE 248
17.1 Capacitance of an Isolated Conductor 248
17.2 Mutual Capacitance. Capacitors 249

CHAPTER 18 DIELECTRICS IN AN ELECTRIC FIELD 253
18.1 Dipole Moments of Molecules of a Dielectric 253
18.2 Polarization of Dielectrics 255
18.3 Relation Between Displacement, Field Strength and Polarization Vectors 259
18.4 Ferroelectric Materials 261

CHAPTER 19 ENERGY OF AN ELECTRIC FIELD 264
19.1 Energy of a Charged Conductor and an Electric Field 264
19.2 Energy of a Polarized Dielectric 267

CHAPTER 20 DIRECT ELECTRIC CURRENT 268
20.1 Concept of an Electric Current 268
20.2 Current and Current Density 269
20.3 Fundamentals of the Classical Electron Theory of Electrical Conduction in Metals 271

CHAPTER 21 DIRECT CURRENT LAWS 274
21.1 Extraneous Forces 274
21.2 Ohm’s Law and the Joule-Lenz Law 275
21.3 KirchhoH’s Laws 279

CHAPTER 22 ELECTRIC CURRENT IN LIQUIDS ND GASES 282
22.1 Faraday’s Laws of Electrolysis. Electrolytic Dissociation 282
22.2 Atomicity of Electric Charges 284
22.3 Electrolytic Conduction of Liquids 284
22.4 Electrical Conduction in Gases 286
22.5 Various Types of Gas Discharges 287
22.6 Certain Information on Plasma 290

CHAPTER 23 MAGNETIC FIELD OF DIRECT CURRENT 294
23.1 Magnetic Field. Ampere’s Law 294
23.2 The Biot-Savarf-Laplace Law 296
23.3 Simplest Cases of Magnetic Fields Set Up by Direct Currents 300
23.4 Interaction of Conductors. Effect of a Magnetic Field on Current-Carrying Conductors 306
23.5 Total Current Law. Magnetic Circuits 308
23.6 Work Done in Moving a Current-Carrying Conductor in a Magnetic Field 312

CHAPTER 24 MOTION OF CHARGED PARTICLES IN ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS 314
24.1 Lorentz Force 314
24.2 Hall Effect 318
24.3 Charge-fo-Mass Ratio of Particles. Mass Spectroscopy 321
24.4 Charged Particle Accelerators 322

CHAPTER 25 ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION 327
25.1 Basic Law of Electromagnetic Induction 327
25.2 Phenomenon of Self-Induction 331
25.3 Mutual Induction 334
25.4 Energy of a Magnetic Field Set up by an Electric Current 336

CHAPTER 26 MAGNETIC MATERIALS IN A MAGNETIC FIELD 339
26.1 Magnetic Moments of Electrons and Atoms 339
26.2 An Atom in a Magnetic Field 341
26.3 Diamagnetic and Paramagnetic Materials in a Uniform Magnetic Field 344
26.4 Magnetic Field in Magnetic Materials 348
26.5 Ferromagnetic Materials 350

CHAPTER 27 FUNDAMENTALS OF MAXWELL S THEORY 354
27.1 General Features o! Maxwell’s Theory 354
27,2 Maxwell’s First Equation 355
27.3 Displacement Current. Maxwell’s Second Equation 357
27.4 Complete Set of Maxwell’s Equations for an Electromagnetic Field 361

PART FOUR OSCILLATIONS AND WAVES 366

CHAPTER 28 FREE HARMONIC OSCILLATIONS 366
28.1 Harmonic Oscillations 366
28.2 Mechanical Harmonic Vibrations 370
23.3 Free Harmonic Oscillations in an Oscillatory Electric Circuit 376
28.4 Adding Harmonic Oscillations 378

CHAPTER 29 DAMPED AND FORCED OSCILLATIONS 388
29.1 Damped Oscillations 388
29.2 Forced Mechanical Vibration 392
29.3 Forced Electrical Oscillation 397

CHAPTER 30 ELASTIC WAVES 402
30.1 Longitudinal and Transverse Waves in an Elastic Medium 402
30.2 Travelling Wave Equation 405
30.3 Phase Velocity and Energy of Elastic Waves 410
30.4 Principle of Superposition of Waves. Group Velocity
30.5 Interference of Waves. Standing Waves 418
30.6 Doppler Effect in Acoustics 424

CHAPTER 31 ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES 426
31.1 Properties of Electromagnetic Waves 426
31.2 Energy of Electromagnetic Waves 431
31.3 Electromagnetic Radiation 434
31.4 Electromagnetic Spectrum 437
31.5 Reflection and Refraction of Electromagnetic Waves at the Interface Between Two Dielectric Media 439
31.6 Doppler Effect 444

PART FIVE OPTICS 448

CHAPTER 32 INTERFERENCE OF LIGHT 448
32.1 Monochromaticity and Time Coherence of Light 448
32.2 Interference of Light. Spatial Coherence of Light 450
32.3 Interference of Light in Thin Films 457
32.4 Multiwave Interference 461

CHAPTER 33 DIFFRACTION OF LIGHT 465
33.1 Huygens-Fresnel Principle 465
33.2 Fresnel Diffraction 469
33.3 Fraunhofer Diffraction 471
33.4 Diffraction by a Space Lattice 478
33.5 Resolving Power of Optical Instruments 480
33.6 Holography 482

CHAPTER 34 ABSORPTION, SCATTERING AND DISPERSION OF LIGHT. VAVILOV-CHERENKOV RADIATION 485
34.1 Interaction of Light With Matter 485
34.2 Absorption of Light 486
34.3 Scattering of Light 489
24.4 Normal and Anomalous Light Dispersion 491
34.5 Classical Electron Theory of Light Dispersion 493
34.6 Vavilov-Cherenkov Radiation 496

CHAPTER 35 POLARIZATION OF LIGHT 499
35.1 Polarization of Light in Reflection and Refraction at the Interface Between Two Dielectric Media 499
35.2 Birefringence (Double Refraction) 502
35.3 Interference of Polarized Light 508
35.4 Artificial Optical Anisotropy 512
35.5 Rotation of the Plane of Polarization 514

CHAPTER 36 THERMAL RADIATION 515
36.1 Thermal Radiation. Kirchhoff’s Law 515
36.2 Sfefan-Boltzmann and Wien Laws 520
36.3 Planck’s Formula 522
36.4 Optical Pyrometry 526

CHAPTER 37 FUNDAMENTALS OF QUANTUM OPTICS 528
37.1 External Photoelectric Effect (Photoemissive Effect) 528
37.2 Mass and Momentum of the Photon. Light Pressure 532
37.3 Compton Effect 534
37.4 Wave-Particle Duality of the Properties of Light 537

PART SIX ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS 539

CHAPTER 38 ELEMENTS OF QUANTUM MECHANICS 539
38.1 Wave-Particle Dualism of the Properties of Particles of Matter 539
33.2 Schrodinger Wave Equation 542
38.3 Motion of a Free Particle 544
38.4 A Particle in a One-Dimensional Infinitely Deep Potential Well 545
38.5 Linear Harmonic Oscillator 547
38.6 Heisenberg Indeterminacy Principle 552
38.7 Tunnel Effect 555

CHAPTER 39 STRUCTURE OF ATOMS AND MOLECULES AND THEIR OPTICAL PROPERTIES 558
39.1 The Hydrogen Atom and Hydrogen-Like Ions 558
39.2 Space Quantization 563
39.3 Pauli Exclusion Principle. Mendeleev’s Periodic Table 565
39.4 Chemical Bonds and Molecular Structure 567
39.5 Optical Properties of Molecules. Molecular Spectra 570
39.6 Raman Scattering of Light 572
39.7 Luminescence. X rays 574
39.8 Stimulated Emission of Radiation. Lasers 577

PART SEVEN BASIC SOLID-STATE PHYSICS 583

CHAPTER 40 STRUCTURE AND CERTAIN PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS 583
40.1 Structure of Solids 583
40.2 Thermal Expansion of Solids 584
40.3 Brief Information on the Elastic Properties of Solids 586
40.4 Basic Concepts of Phase Transitions in Solids 589

CHAPTER 41 AN OUTLINE OF THE QUANTUM PHYSICS OF SOLIDS 592
41.1 Basic Concepts of Quantum Statistics 592
41.2 Bose-Einsfein and Fermi-Dirac Distribution Functions 593
41.3 Degeneracy of Systems of Particles Described by Quantum Statistics 596
41.4 Degenerate Electron Fermi Gas in Metals 598
41.5 Quantum Theory of Electrical Conduction in Metals 602
41.6 Superconductivity 605
41.7 Heat Capacity of Solids 609
41.8 Band Theory of Solids 614
41.9 Metals and Dielectrics in the Band Theory 618
41.10 Electrical Conduction of Semiconductors 619
41.11 Concept of Contact Electrical Phenomenon Metals and Semiconductors 624

PART EIGHT NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND ELEMENTARY PARTICLES 630

CHAPTER 42 STRUCTURE AND BASIC PROPERTIES OF ATOMIC NUCLEI 630
42.1 Main Properties and Structure of the Nucleus 630
42.2 Binding Energy of Nuclei. Mass Defect 632
42.3 Nuclear Forces 635
42.4 Radioactivity 637
42.5 Alpha Decay 641
42.6 Beta Decay 643
42.7 Gamma Rays 646
42.8 Mossbauer Effect 649
42.9 Nuclear Reactions 652

CHAPTER 43 ELEMENTARY PARTICLES 662
43.1 Preliminary Information on Elementary Particles 662
43.2 Classification of Elementary Particles and Their Interaction 666
43.3 Certain Information on Various Elementary Particles 669
43.4 Certain Conservation Laws in Elementary-Particle Physics 672
43.5 Antiparticles 675
43.6 Structure of the Nucleon 677

PART NINE APPENDICES 680

I. SYSTEMS OF UNITS OF PHYSICAL QUANTITIES 680

II. FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 694

INDEX 699

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