Origin and Chemical Evolution of the Earth (Science for Everyone) – Voitkevich

In this post, we will see the book Origin and Chemical Evolution of the Earth by G.V. Voitkevich.  Earlier, we had seen Origin and Development of Life on Earth by the same author, which can be seen as a companion volume to the one in this post.

This is a book in the Science for Everyone Series. With this post, we have almost completed this series. As of now, we have updated all the dead links with Internet Archive ones. Next, we will update the Little Mathematic Library.

Now only ONE book in this series remains (Earth, Sweet Earth by Ekaterina Radkevich (1990)). Many people contributed to this collection becoming almost complete, a big thanks to all those who have contributed to making this possible.

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About the book

One of the most important problems in modern science is the origin of the Earth and formation of its shell. Modern views on the chemical composition of meteorites, planets and other bodies of the Solar System are pres­ented in this book. On the basis of recent achievements in cosmochemistry, the author, who is one of the leading scientists in the field of geochemistry, geophysics, describes the most probable processes that determined the chemical composition of the Earth in the remote past. Prof. George Voitkevich is also a winner of the Kar­pinsky Prize, which is given to a scientist for outstand­ing work in geology by the USSR Academy of Sciences. (From the back cover)

In this book the author attempts to describe in popular form some problems of the Earth’s origin and its chemical changes over its long geological history on the basis of cosmochem­ical, geochemical and geophysical data ob­tained in recent years. The chemical evolu­tion of the Earth is part of the chemical evolu­tion of Space. Modern cosmochemical and geo­chemical data reveal that the chemical history of the Earth as well as of other bodies of the Solar System is associated not only with pre­served stable and nonstable isotopes but also with extinct radioactive isotopes, including the isotopes of transuranium elements. (From the Introduction)

The book was translated from the Russian by V. F. Agranat and V. F. Pominov and was first published by Mir in 1988.

The Internet Archive Link

Contents

Preface 5

The Distribution of Elements in the Solar System and Their Geochemical Properties 9

Evidence of the Early History of the Solar System 31

The Nature and Chemical Composi­tion of Planets 45

Composition and Constitution of the Earth 71

The Present and Past Radioactivity of the Earth 87

The Birth of Atoms in Space 97

Chemical Evolution of the Protoplanetary Material 112

Formation of the Earth’s Principal Shells 136

Origin and Evolution of the Ocean and Atmosphere 152

Principal Trends in the Chemical Changes in the Earth’s Crust and Biosphere 181

The Chemical Evolution of the Earth’s Crust 202

Conclusion 223

Bibliography 232

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Puppets Without Strings (Science for Everyone) – Varshavsky, Pospelov

In this post, we will see the book Puppets Without Strings: Reflections on the Evolution
and Control of Some Man-Made Systems by V. I. Varshavsky, D. A. Pospelov. This is another book in the Science For Everyone series.

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About the book

Paradoxes in the evolution of technological systems. Who designed the global telephone and communication network? The whole is the sum of the parts plus their interactions. Is a simple data register really simple? Automata exploring unknown worlds. Optimum or expediency? Random interactions and information exchange. Daydreaming and cynical automata.

“I thought he thought I thought he. .. .” Heterogeneity in a group of automata is a key to success. Are we haunted by the ghost of Erehwon City? Puppets without strings: who is the puppeteer? Boundaries of centralization. How do systems evolve?
A fresh look at design. Evolution goes on. (from the Back Cover)

We seek to present a popular account of the control problems that arise in complex systems which are more generally called large-scale systems in control theory. In systems of this kind, centralized control often gives way to decentralized control, the transition being a penalty for the system’s complexity. This is because the system’s complexity makes centralized con­trol either inefficient or impracticable. How do large-scale systems arise, and is it possible that the category of large-scale system is merely a far-fetched nothing? We have tried to show in this book that large-scale man-made systems which sur­round us are steadily becoming more nu­merous and still more complex. The evolu­tion of man-made systems out of the already existing ones goes on in much the same way as living organisms evolve. Decen­tralized control is but a natural product of this evolution. We hope to convince our readers that it is just so. (from Instead of a Preface)

The book was translated from the Russian by A. Kandaurov and was first published by Mir in 1988.

The Internet Archive Link

Contents

Instead of a Preface 8

Chapter 1. Decentralized Control: the Whys and Wherefores 11

1.1. The Man-Made World 11
1.2. Systems That Have Never Been Designed as a Whole 17
1.3. A Few Instructive Examples 23
1.4. Analysis of the Examples 28
1.5. Why Decentralization? 33

Chapter 2. Is It Easy to Exist in a Contradictory World? 40

2.1. The Pros and Cons of Com­mon Sense 40
2.2. A “Small Animal” 45
2.3. Reaping the Fruits of Linear Tactics 49
2.4. Smart Machines: Reckless and Cautious 55
2.5. How to Live in a Transient World 60
2.6. Hungry Bats and Aerobatics 76
2.7. Put Your Heads Together 81

Chapter 3. “How Comes This Gentle Concord in the World? 86

3.1. The Sukharev Tower Pact 86
3.2. When Everybody Is Alike 103
3.3. Distribution of Limited Resources 119
3.4. What Shall ’ We Do with Random Interactions? 127
3.5. He Thought I Thought He 141
3.6. Optimists and Pessimists in the World of Automata 150
3.7. Three More Simple Models 161

Chapter 4. Jump the Queue and Call It Fair! 170

4.1. Where Do All the Queues Come From? 170
4.2. Barbers, Clients, and Prior­ities 178
4.3. How to Learn to Be a Foreman 187
4.4. One Circus Ring Is Not Enough 194
4.5. Problem Faced by Housing Board and Similar Problems 200
4.6. “Stubborn” Automata and Vot­ing 212

Chapter 5. Stringless Puppets Make a Show 223

5.1. Wait and See Them Fire 223
5.2. Have Them Fire All at Once 227
5.3. Marching and Wandering Au­tomata 236
5.4. Praise Be to Homogeneous Structures 241
5.5. Why Yoga Is Not Our Way? 255

Chapter 6. Dialectics of the Simple and the Complex 262

6.1. Synthesogenesis and Integra­tion of Efforts 262
6.2. Segregatiogenesis and Its Ef­fects 272
6.3. Evolution in the Erehwon City 282
6.4. Instead of a Conclusion. Evo­lution Goes on 287

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The Magic of Galaxies and Stars – Gurevich, Chernin

In this post, we will see the book The Magic of Galaxies and Stars L. E. Gurevich and A. D. Chernin

Gurevich, Chernin - The Magic of Galaxies and Stars - Mir - 1987

About the book

This book is ideal for those who wish to start learning about the intriguing modem concepts of astrophysics; the birth and evolution of the universe, its large-scale structure, galaxies and their clusters, and stars. The book provides
just enough text to give a feeling of what it is all about, such as the non* Euclidean geometry of the universe, while the main point is to cover all the recent major discoveries and novel hypotheses and theories in astrophysics, from quasars and relict radiation to black holes and the neutrino rest mass, the latter having a profound impact on the entire philosophy of the universe. The Russian edition of this book ran into 100,000 copies and is sold out. (from the back cover)

This book covers the cosmogony of stars and galaxies, a new field in astrophysics. The modern development of cosmogony is related to the astronomic discoveries of the past two decades, starting from the discovery of quasars in 1963 and microwave background radiation in 1965. The researchers in this area proceed from the achieve­ments of cosmology, a science dealing with the universe as a whole, and make use of data from different branches of astronomy, physics, and mathematics

This book deals with the latest achievements of cosmog­ony, its problems and prospects, using the simple lan­guage of school physics and astronomy. In fact, the basic ideas and hypotheses allow a demonstrative presentation without mathematical formulas, and we hope that the general reader, keen on science news, will be eagerly in­terested.

This popular-science book follows our monograph Introduction to Cosmogony (Nauka, Moscow, 1978, in Russian), which reviewed and analyzed the investigations of the authors and their colleagues and gave a general presentation of the modern science of cosmogony. The prin­cipal ideas of the monograph are reflected in this book as well; furthermore, we added new material on recent star formation, the final stages of their evolution, and the role of neutrinos in cosmogony.

The book was translated from the Russian by Michael Burov and was published by Mir in 1987.

The Internet Archive Link

Though not the copy in the scan, I have had a copy of this book for a long time. This book is one of my first Mir books that I had purchased in the mid-90s, when you could still get these off-the-shelf. This is one of the few books that I have perhaps read more than once. The conceptual clarity is great and helps you understand the main physics behind phenomena.

out0095-e1578492591225.jpegThis current scan copy was purchased from Blossoms in Bangalore, just for Rs. 40, a few years back. (The label you see above was removed during the cleaning.)  Blossoms has a dedicated section for Mir books (and fantastic other sections too). If you are in Bangalore, please do visit and get your hands full for all kinds of books. You can spend hours at this book shop, get exhausted physically, cognitively, and economically yet there are more books than you can imagine or carry back with you. A true bibliophile’s candy shop. Thanks to @DhwaniB for the photos

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Contents

Preface 5

Chapter 1. The Universe 9

Stars and Galaxies 9
Cosmological Expansion 16
The Geometry of the Universe 21
The Horizon 22
Relict Radiation 25

Chapter 2. The Origin of the Large-Scale Structure of the Universe 32

Stars, Galaxies, and Cosmological Expan­sion 32
Gravitational Instability 34
Pregalactic Structure 41
Entropy Perturbations and the Relict Background 51
The Formation of Clusters of Galaxies 54
The Large-Scale Structure of the Universe 59

Chapter 3. Stellar Eddies 63

Rotation of Galaxies 67
Eddy Cosmogony 69
Protogalactic Turbulence 71
Primordial Eddies? 77
Tidal Torques? 83
The Birth of Eddies 84
A Protocluster as a Turbulent Layer 89
The Spiral Structure 101

Chapter 4. The Birth and Evolution of Stars 109

The Sun and Stars 109
Gravitational Condensation 111
Cascade Fragmentation 113
The Interstellar Medium 118
Young Stars 126
Instabilities and Clouds 134
The Life of a Star 138
Close Binary Stars 145

Chapter 5. The Evolution of Stellar Systems 156

From a Protogalaxy to a Stellar System 156
The Motion of Stars in Galaxies 161
Violent Relaxation 162
The Evolution of Star Clusters 164

Chapter 6. “Hidden Masses”, Neutrinos, and Ein­stein’s Vacuum 168

“Hidden Masses” 169
The Neutrino Rest Mass 178
Neutrino Coronas 179
A Closed Universe? 184
Einstein’s Vacuum 186

Conclusion 192

Recommended Literature 200

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Modern Geology (Science for Everyone) – Yasamanov

In this post, we will see the book Modern Geology by N. A. Yasamanov. This is another book in the Science for Everyone Series.

Yasmanov - Modern Geology - Science for Everyone - Mirfc copy

About the Book

The principal advances in geoscience are discussed in this book. Prof. N. Yasamanov tells us about the role that geology plays in human society, about the Earth’s structure, origin and history. He describes the beginnings of life on Earth, the distribution of natural resources over the globe and the problems connected with environmental protection.The book is intended for senior schoolchildren, teachers and all who are interested in Earth sciences; it would also be helpful for students of geological exploration in technical schools.

The geological science is versatile. One book cannot show all of its specifics, are­ search techniques and major advances in all of its areas. We hence merely mention here such principal avenues as mineralogy and petrology, crystallography and petrogra­phy, geochemistry and geophysics, engi­neering geology and hydrogeology. This book will help a school teacher to unfold more openly the essence of one of the fun­damental sciences and will ease the correct and duly professional orientation of a young­ster.

The book was translated from the Russian by V. F. Agranat and was published by Mir in 1990. This might perhaps be one of the last books published by Mir and other Soviet-era publishers.

Many, many thanks to the Russian book lover Angelika for the raw scans of the book.

The Internet Archive Link

Contents

Preface 5 Introduction 9

Geology As the Fundamental Science of the Earth 15

Geology and Humans 15
Geological Processes 19
Geology and Cities 23

The Planet Earth 27

The Shape and Size of the Earth 33
Shells of the Earth 36
The Internal Structure of the Earth 44

The Origin of the Earth and Evolu­tion of Its Interior 52

The Birth of the Earth 52
Gravitational Differentiation 56
The Origin of the Earth’s Crust 60

The Time Scale and History of the Earth 64

The Age of Rocks and Geological Time 64
Geological Time Scale 70
Principal Stages in the Formation of the Earth’s Crust 76

This Variable Face of the Earth 84

Weathering and Soils 86
Surface and Subsurface Waters 90 Glaciers 98
Wind Action 104
Geological Activity of Seas 108

Volcanoes and Earthquakes 111

Present-day Volcanoes 112
Volcanic Activity 118
Causes and Distribution of Earthquakes 123
Earthquake Studies and Prediction 128

A Biography of Life on the Earth 134

Origin of Organisms 134
The Appearance of Skeletal Faunas 138
The Conquest of Land 144
The Time of Dinosaurs and Mammals 147
The Life of Microorganisms 156

History of the Earth’s Climate and Atmosphere 164

Origin of the Atmosphere 165
Climatic Variations in the Geological Past 168
Climate and the Evolution of Organisms 174
Climate in the Future 179

Marine Geology 182

Origin and Evolution of Waters of the World Ocean 183
Why Is the Sea Salty? 186
The Structure and Geology of the Ocean Floor 191
Marine Research Laboratories 201

Motions of Continents 21

A. Wegener’s Hypothesis 211
Paleomagnetism and Neomobilism 216
The Tectonics of the Lithospheric Plates 220
The Mechanism of Motion of Lithospheric Plates 224
Global Reconstructions 227
Geosynclines as Folded Mountain Systems 236
The History of the Mediterranean Sea 241

Earth’s Natural Resources and En­vironmental Protection 246

Energy Resources 247

Mineral Resources 251

On the Protection of the Earth’s Interior and the Environment 259

Conclusions 275
Index 278

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Mystery Of Mineralogy (Science For Everyone) – Srebrodolsky

In this post, we will see the book Mystery of Mineralogy by B. I. Srebrodolsky. This is a book in the Science for Everyone series.

Srebrodolsky - Mystery of Mineralogy - Science for Everyone - Mirfc copy

About the book

This book deals with the mysteries of geology. The basic concepts about solid mineral materials, symmetry and its elements, single crystals, intergrowths and twins, and habitual and simple crystallographic forms, which manifest themselves both in the outward appearance and in the external atomic structure of minerals are presented in this book.

This book is the result of many years of the author’s studies on an interesting mineral assemblage in sulfate-carbonate rocks. The problems, connected with the specifics of calcium sulfate conversion to sulfur and calcite, are discussed in the book. (from the back cover)

Mineralogy is a fundamental science; con­cepts about the origin of mineral deposits can be based solely on the information provided by this science. This book is the result of many years of the author’s studies on an interesting mineral assemblage in sulfate- carbonate rocks. It is intended for geologists, students, and lovers of stones. The basic concepts about solid mineral materials, sym­metry and its elements, single crystals, intergrowths and twins, and habitual and sim­ple crystallographic forms, which manifest themselves both in the outward appearance and in the internal atomic structure of minerals, are presented in this book.

The reader is acquainted with the marble onyx secret and with the secrecy of Egyptian pyramids long- living. It is intended for geologists, students, and lovers of stones. (from the Preface)

The book was translated from the Russian by V. F. Agranat and was published by Mir in 1989.

Many, many thanks to Angelika (a Russian booklover!) for providing the raw scans of this and Modern Geology (which we will see in the next post) in SFE series.

The Internet Archive Link

Contents

Preface 5

Why Are the Egyptian Pyramids So Long-Lived? 10

Gypsum and Anhydrite 10
Barite 25
Resistance of Stone to Weather 37

The World of Crystals 45
The Mystery of Onyx Marble 57

Calcite 57
Ornamental Calcite 72

A Mineral of Vital Importance 85

Salt Domes 91

A Mineral of the Future 111

Cryptocrystalline Sulphur 126
Coarse-Crystalline Sulphur 133
Microbiological Sulphur Accumulation 164
Contaminating Elements in Sulphur 167
Sulphur Isotopy 170
Sulphur As a Mercury Mineral Settler 173
Sulphur Caves 179

Ubiquitous and Diverse 180

Bluish Quartz 185
Chalcedony 186
Quartzine 190
Precious Opal 192

The Mystery of Melanophlogite 196

The World of Minute Minerals 204

Clay Minerals from Sulphur Deposits 214
Clay Minerals Derived from Underwater Weathering 225

Conclusion 230
Bibliography 233

Subject Index 236

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Theoretical Mechanics – A Short Course -Targ

In this post, we will see the book Theoretical Mechanics – A Short Course by S. Targ.

About the book

This Short Course of Theoretical Mechanics is designed for students of higher and secondary technical schools. It treats of the basic methods of theoretical mechanics and spheres of their application along with some to­pics which are of such importance todays that no course of mechanics, even a short one, can neglect them altogether.

In preparing the original Russian edition for translation the text has be­en substantially revised, with additions, changes and corrections in practi­cally all the chapters.

Most of the additions are new sections containing supplementary infor­mation on the motion of a rigid body about a fixed point (the kinematic and dynamic Euler equations) and chapters setting forth the fundamentals of the method of generalized coordinates (the Lagrange equations), since the de­mands to the course of theoretical mechanics in training engineers of diffe­rent specialities makes it necessary to devote some space to this subject even in a short course.

Also the book presents an essential minimum on the elementary theory of the gyroscope and such highly relevant topics as motion in gravitational fields (elliptical paths and space flights) and the motion of a body of va­riable mass (rocket motion); a new section discusses weightlessness.

The structure of this book is based on the profound conviction, born out by many years of experience, that the best way of presenting study mate­rial, especially when it is contained in a short course, is to proceed from the particular to the general. Accordingly, in this book, plane statics comes be­fore three-dimensional statics, particle dynamics before system dynamics, rectilinear motion before curvilinear motion, etc. Such an arrangement helps the student to understand and digest the material better and faster and the teaching process itself is made more graphic and consistent.

Alongside with the geometrical and analytical methods of mechanics the book makes wide use of the vector method as one of the main generally accepted methods, which, furthermore, possesses a number of indisputable advantages. As a rule, however, only those vector operations are used which are similar to corresponding operations with scalar quantities and which do not require an acquaintance with many new concepts.

Considerable space—more than one-third of the book—is devoted to examples and worked problems. They were chosen with an eve to ensure a clear comprehension of the relevant mechanical phenomena and cover all the main types of problems solved by the methods described. There are 176 such examples (besides worked problems); their solutions contain instruc­tions designed to assist the student in his independent work on the course. In this respect the book should prove useful to all students of engineering, notably those studying by correspondence or on their own.

The book was translated from the Russian by V. Talmy.

There are several editions and reprints of the book. First, it was published under Foreign Languages Publishing House in the 1950s and 1960s, later under Mir, with the last reprint in 1988.

This post has copies from both Mir (Link 1) and FLPH (Links 2 and 3).

Link 1 (Mir 1988 reprint, credits to the original uploader, converted djvu to pdf [I am not a big fan of djvu format], added pagination, bookmarks, OCR and cover)

Link 2 (FLPH 1960s print, cleaned, bookmarked, paginated copy of the link below. Note that this is not a hi-resolution scan, though the OCR has worked well for most of the words. A better copy could be suggested.)

Link 3 (from Public Resource collection, original for the cleaned copy above)

 

CONTENTS

Note: The contents of the FLPH and Mir editions are a bit different. There is slight reorganisation of the topics and a few new topics in the Mir edition and it has 32 chapters, one more than the FLPH edition and more pages 528 as compared to 427 in FLPH edition.

Contents (Mir 1988 edition)

Preface to the English Edition 5

Introduction 15

Part 1. STATICS OF RIGID BODIES

Chapter 1. Basic Concepts and Principles

1. The subject of statics 19
2. Force 21
3. Fundamental principles 22
4. Constraints and their reactions 26
5. Axiom of constraints 28

Chapter 2. Composition of Forces. Concurrent Force Systems

6. Geometrical method of composition of forces. Resultant of con­ current forces 30
7. Resolution of forces 32
8. Projection of a force on an axis and on a plane 36
9. Analytical method of defining a force 37
10. Analytical method of composition of forces 38
11. Equilibrium of a system of concurrent forces 40
12. Problems statically determinate and statically indeterminate 42
13. Solution of problems of statics 43
14. Moment of force about an axis (or a point) 53
15. Varignon’s theorem of the moment of a resultant 54
16*. Equations of moments of concurrent forces 55

Chapter 3. Parallel Forces and Force Couples in a Plane 64

17. Composition and resolution of parallel forces 58
18. A force couple. Moment of a couple 60
19. Equivalent couples 62
20. Composition of coplanar couples. Conditions for the equilibrium of couples 64

Chapter 4. General Case of Forces in a Plane

21. Theorem of translation of a force 67
22. Reduction of a coplanar force system to a givencentre 68
23. Reduction of a coplanar force system to the simplestpossible form 71
24. Conditions for the equilibrium of a coplanar force system. The case of parallel forces 73
25. Solution of problems 75
26. Equilibrium of systems of bodies 84
27*. Determination of internal forces (stresses) 88
28*. Distributed forces 89

Chapter 5. Elements of Graphical Statics

29. Force and string polygons. Reduction of a coplanar force system to two forces 93
30. Graphical determination of a resultant 95
31. Graphical determination of a resultant couple 96
32. Graphical conditions of equilibrium of a coplanarforce system 96
33. Determination of the reactions of constraints 97

Chapter 6. Solution of Trusses

34. Trusses. Analytical analysis of plane trusses 99
35*. Graphical analysis of plane trusses 103
36*. The Maxwell-Cremona diagram 104

Chapter 7. Friction

37. Laws of static friction 107
38. Reactions of rough constraints. Angle offriction 109
39. Equilibrium with friction 110
40*. Belt friction 114
41*. Rolling friction and pivot friction 116

Chapter 8. Couples and Forces in Space

42. Moment of a force about a point as a vector 118
43. Moment of a force with respect to an axis 120
44. Relation between the moments of a force about a point and an axis 123
45. Vector expression of the moment of a couple 124
46*. Composition of couples in space. Conditions of equilibrium of couples 125
47. Reduction of a force system in space to a given centre 128
48*. Reduction of a force system in space to the simplest possible form 130
49. Conditions of equilibrium of an arbitrary force system in space.
The case of^ parallel forces 132
50. Varignon’s theorem of the moment of a resultant with respect to
an axis 134
51. Problems on equilibrium of bodies subjected to action of force systems in space 134
52*. Conditions of equilibrium of a constrained rigid body. Concept of stability of equilibrium 144

Chapter 9. Centre of Gravity

53. Centre of parallel forces 146
54. Centre of gravity of a rigid body 148
55. Coordinates of centres of gravity of homogeneous bodies 149
56. Methods of determining the coordinates of the centre of gravity of bodies 150
57. Centres of gravity of some homogeneous bodies 153

Part 2 KINEMATICS OF A PARTICLE AND A RIGID BODY

Chapter 10. Kinematics of a Particle

58. Introduction to kinematics 156
59. Methods of describing motion of a particle. Path 158
60*. Conversion from coordinate to natural method of describing its motion is described by the coordinate method 161
61. Velocity vector of a particle 163
62. Acceleration vector of a particle 164
63. Theorem of the projection of the derivativeof a vector 166
64. Determination of the velocity and acceleration of a particle when its motion is described by coordinate method 167
65. Solution of problems of particle kinematics 168
66. Determination of the velocity of a particle when its motion is described by the natural method 173
67. Tangential and normal accelerations of a particle 174
68. Some special cases of particle motion 178
69. Graphs of displacement, velocity and acceleration of a particle 180
70. Solution of problems 182
71*. Velocity in polar coordinates 185
72*. Graphical analysis of particle motion 186

Chapter 11. Translational and Rotational Motion of a Rigid Body

73. Translational motion 191
74. Rotational motion of a rigid body. Angular velocity and angular acceleration 193
75. Uniform and uniformly variable rotations 195
76. Velocities and accelerations of the points of a rotating body 196

Chapter 12. Plane Motion of a Rigid Body

77. Equations of plane motion. Resolution of motion into translation and rotation 201
78. Determination of the path of a point of a body 203
79. Determination of the velocity of a point of a body 204
80. Theorem of the projections of the velocities of two points of a body 206
81. Determination of the velocity of a point of a body using the in­stantaneous centre of zero velocity. Centrodes 207
82. Solution of problems 212
83*. Velocity diagram 217
84. Determination of the acceleration of a point of a body 219
85*. Instantaneous centre of zero acceleration 227

Chapter 13. Motion of a Rigid Body Having One Fixed Point and Motion of a Free Rigid Body

86. Motion of a rigid body having one fixed point 231
87*. Velocity and acceleration of a point of a body 233
88. The general motion of a free rigid body 236

Chapter 14. Resultant Motion of a Particle

89. Relative, transport, and absolute motion 239
90. Composition of velocities 241
91*. Composition of accelerations 245
92. Solution of problems 249

Chapter 15. Resultant Motion of a Rigid Body

93. Composition of translational motions 257
94. Composition of rotations about two parallel axes 257
95*. Toothed spur gearing 260
96*. Composition of rotations about intersecting axes 264
97*. Euler kinematic equations 266
98*. Composition of a translation and a rotation. Screwmotion 268

Part 3 PARTICLE DYNAMICS

Chapter 16. Introduction of Dynamics. Laws of Dynamics

99. Basic concepts and definitions 271
100. The laws of dynamics 273
101. Systems of units 275
102. The problems of dynamics for a free and a constrained particle 275
103. Solution of the first problem of dynamics (determination of the forces if the motion is known) 276

Chapter 17. Differential Equations of Motion for a Particle and Their Integration

104. Rectilinear motion of a particle 279
105. Solution of problems 282
106*. Body falling in a resisting medium (in air) 288
107. Curvilinear motion of a particle 291
108. Motion of a particle thrown at an angle to the horizon in a uniform gravitational field 292

Chapter 18. General Theorems of Particle Dynamics

109. Momentum and kinetic energy of a particle 295
110. Impulse of a force 296
111. Theorem of the change in the momentum of a particle 297
112. Work done by a force. Power 298
113. Examples of calculation of work 302
114. Theorem of the change in the kinetic energy of a particle 306
115. Solution of problems 307
116. Theorem of the change in the angular momentum of a particle
(the principle of moments) 315
117*. Motion under the action of a central force. Law of areas 317

Chapter 19. Constrained Motion of a Particle

§ 118. Equations of motion of a particle along a given fixed curve 319 § 119. Determination of the reactions of constraints 322

Chapter 20. Relative Motion of a Particle

120. Equations of relative motion and rest of a particle 325
121. Effect of the rotation of the earth on the equilibrium and motion of bodies 328
122*.Deflection of a falling particle from the vertical by the earth’s rotation 331

Chapter 21. Rectilinear Vibration of a Particle

123. Free vibrations neglecting resisting forces 335
124. Free vibration with a resisting force proportional to velocity (damped vibration) 341
125. Forced vibration. Resonance 343

Chapter 22*. Motion of a Body in the Earth’s Gravitational Field

126. Motion of a particle thrown at an angle to the horizon in the earth’s gravitational field 353
127. Artificial earth satellites. Elliptical paths 357
128. Weightlessness 360

Part 4 DYNAMICS OF A SYSTEM AND A RIGID BODY

Chapter 23. Introduction to the Dynamics of a System. Moments of Inertia of Rigid Bodies

129. Mechanical systems. External and internal forces 366
130. Mass of a system. Centre of mass 367
131. Moment of inertia of a body about an axis. Radius of gyration 368
132. Moments of inertia of a body about parallel axes. The parallel axis (Huygens’) theorem 372
133*. Product of inertia. Principal axes of inertia of a body 374

Chapter 24. Theorem of the Motion of the Centre of Mass of a System

134. The differential equations of motion of a system 378
135. Theorem of motion of centre of mass 379
136. The law of conservation of motion of centre of mass 380
137. Solution of problems 382

Chapter 25. Theorem of the Change in the Linear Momentum of a System

138. Linear momentum of a system 387
139. Theorem of the change in linear momentum 388
140. The law of conservation of linear momentum 389
141. Solution of problems 391
142*. Bodies having variable mass. Motion of a rocket 393

Chapter 26. Theorem of the Change in the Angular Momentum of a System

143. Total angular momentum of a system 397
144. Theorem of the change in the total angular momentum of a system (the principle of moments) 399
145. The law of conservation of the total angular momentum 401
146. Solution of problems 403

Chapter 27. Theorem of the Change in the Kinetic Energy of a System

147. Kinetic energy of a system 407
148. Some cases of computation of work 411
149. Theorem of the change in the kinetic energy of a system 414
150. Solution of problems 416
151. Conservative force field and force function 422
152. Potential energy 426
153. The law of conservation of mechanical energy 427

Chapter 28. Applications of the General Theorems to Rigid-body Dynamics

154. Rotation of a rigid body 429
155. The compound pendulum 432
156. Plane motion of a rigid body 435
157*. Approximate theory of gyroscopic action 443
158*. Motion of a rigid body about a fixed point and motion of a free rigid body 448

Chapter 29. Applications of the General Theorems to the Theory of Impact

159. The fundamental equation of the theory of impact 454
160. General theorems of the theory of impact 455
161. Coefficient of restitution 457
162. Impact of a body against a fixed obstacle 458
163. Direct central impact of two bodies (impact of spheres) 460
164. Loss of kinetic energy in perfectly inelastic impact. Carnot’s theorem 462 165*. Impact with a rotating body 464

Chapter 30. D’Alembert’s Principle. Forces Acting on the Axis of a Rotating Body

166. D’Alembert’s principle 469
167. The principal vector and the principal moment of the inertia forces of a rigid body 472
168. Solution of problems 473
169*. Dynamic reactions on the axis of a rotating body. Dynamic balancing of masses 479

Chapter 31. The Principle of Virtual Displacements and the General Equation of Dynamics 485

170. Virtual displacements of a system. Degrees of freedom 485
171. The principle of virtual displacements 486
172. Solution of problems 488
173. The general equation of dynamics 494

Chapter 32*. Equilibrium Conditions and Equations of Motion of a System in Generalised Coordinates 499

174. Generalised coordinates and generalised velocities 499
175. Generalised forces 501
176. Equilibrium conditions for a system in generalised coordinates 505
177. Lagrange’s equations 507
178. Solution of problems 510

Index 520

==================================================

Contents (FLPH 1960s edition)

Preface 9

Introduction 10

PART 1. STATICS OF RIGID BODIES

Chapter 1. Basic Concepts and Principles

1. The Subject of Statics 13
2. Force 14
3. Fundamental Principles 16
4. Constraints and Their Reactions 19
5. Axiom of Constraints 22

Chapter 2. Concurrent Force Systems

6. Geometrical method of Composition of forces. Concurrent Forces 23
7. Resolution of Forces 25
8. Projection of a Force on an Axis and on a Plane 28
9. Analytical Method ol Defining a Force 30
10. Analytical Method for (he Composition of Forces 31
11. Equilibrium of a System of Concurrent Forces 32
12. Problems Statically Determinate and Statically Indeterminate 34
13. Solution of Problems of Statics 35
14. Moment of a Force About an Axis (or a Point) 43
15. Varignon’s Theorem of the moment of a Resultant 45
16. Equations of Moments of Concurrent Forces 46

Chapter 3. Parallel Forces and Couples in a Plane

17. Composition and Resolution of Parallel Forces 47
18. Force Couples. Moment of a Couple 50
19. Equivalent Couples 51
20. Coplanar Couples. Conditions for the Equilibrium of couples 53

Chapter 4. General Case of Forces in a Plane

21. Theorem of the Translation of a Force to a Parallel Position 55
22. Reduction of a Coplanar Force System to a Given Centre 56
23. Reduction of a Coplanar Force System to the Simplest Possible Form 58
24. Conditions for the Equilibrium of a Coplanar Force System 61
25. Equilibrium of a Coplanar System of Parallel Forces 63
26. Solution of Problems 63
27. Equilibrium of Systems of Bodies 70
28. Distributed Forces 74

Chapter 5. Elements of Graphical Statics

29. Force and String Polygons. Reduction of a Coplanar Force Systems to Two Forces 78
30. Graphical Determination of a Resultant 80
31. Graphical Determination of a Resultant Couple 80
32. Graphical Conditions of Equilibrium of a Coplanar Force System 81
33. Determination of the Reactions of Constraints 81
34. Graphical Analysis of Plane Trusses 82
35. The Maxwell Diagram 85

Chapter 6. Friclion

36. Laws of Static Friction 86
37. Reactions of Rough Constraints. Angle of Friction 88
38. Equilibrium with Friction 89
39. Belt Friction 92
40. Rolling Friction and Pivot Friction 94

Chapter 7. Couples and Forces in Space

41. Moment of a Force About a Point as a Vector 95
42. Moment of a Force with Respect to an Axis 97
43. Relation Between the Moments of a Force about a Point and an Axis 100
44. Vector Expression of the Moment of a Couple 101
45. Composition of Couples in Space. Conditions of Equilibrium of Couples 101
46. Reduction of a Force System in Space to a Given Centre 104
47. Reduction of a Force System in Space to the Simplest Possible Form 106
48. Condition of Equilibrium of an Arbitrary Force System in Space. The Case of Parallel Forces 108
49. Varignon’s Theorem of the Moment of a Resultant with Respect to an Axis 109
50. Problems on the Equilibrium of Bodies Subjected to the Action of Force Systems in Space 110
51. Conditions of Equilibrium of a Constrained Rigid Body. Concept of Stability of Equilibrium 117

Chapter 8. Centre of Gravity

52. Centre of Parallel Forces 118
53. Centre of Gravity of a Rigid Body 120
54. Coordinates of Centres of Gravity of Homogeneous Bodies 122
55. Methods of Determining the Coordinates of the Centre of Gravity of Bodies 122
56. Centre of Gravity of Some Homogeneous Bodies 125

PART 2. KINEMATICS OF A PARTICLE AND A RIGID BODY

Chapter 9. Rectilinear Motion of a Particle

57. Introduction to Kinematics 128
58. Equation of Rectilinear Motion 129
59. Velocity and Acceleration of a Particle in Rectilinear Motion 130
60. Some Examples of Rectilinear Motion of a Particle 132
61. Graphs of Displacement, Velocity and Acceleration of a Particle 134
62. Solution of Problems 138

Chapter 10. Curvilinear Motion of a Particle

63. Vector Method of Describing Motion of a Particle 137
64. Velocity Vector of a Particle 138
65. Acceleration Vector of a Particle 130
66. Theorem of the Projection of the Derivative of a Vector 141
67. Coordinate Method of Describing Motion. Determination of the Path, Velocity and Acceleration of a Particle 142
68. Natural Method of Describing Motion. Determination of the Velocity of a Particle 147
69. Tangential and Normal Acceleration of a Particle 148
70. Some Special Cases of Particle Motion 151
71. Velocity in Polar Coordinates 156
72. Graphical Analysis of Particle Motion 156

Chapter 11. Translatory and Rotational Motion of a Rigid Body

73. Motion of Translation 160
74. Rolatiotral Atotion of a Rigid Body. Angular Velocity and Angular Acceleration 162
75. Uniform and Uniformly Variable Rotation 164
76. Velocities and Accelerations of llie Points of a Rotating Body 166

Chapter 12. Plane Motion of a Rigid Body

77. Equations of Plane Motion. Resolution of Motion into Translation and Rotation 170
78. Determination of the Paths of the Points of a Body 172
79. Determination of the Velocity of Any Point of a Body 173
80. Theorem of the Projections of the Velocities of Two Points of a Body 174
81. Determination of the Velocity of Any Point of a Body Using the
Instantaneous Centre of Zero Velocity 175
82. Solution of Problems 178
83. Velocity Diagram 182
84. Determination of the Acceleration of Any Point of a Body 184
85. Instantaneous Centre of Zero Acceleration 191

Chapter 13. Motion of a Rigid Body Having One Fixed Point and Motion of a Free Rigid Body

86. Motion of a Rigid Body Having One Fixed Point 193
87. Acceleration of Any Point of a Body 195
88. The Most General Motion of a Free Rigid Body 196

Chapter 14. Resultant Motion of a Particle

89. Relative, Transport, and Absolute Motion 198
90. Composition of Velocities 200
91. Composition of Accelerations. Coriolis Theorem 203
92. Calculation of Coriolis Acceleration 207
93. Solution of Problems 207

Chapter 15. Resultant Motion of a Rigid Body

94. Composition of Translatory Motions 215
95. Composition of Rotations About Two Parallel Axes 215
96. Toothed Spur Gearing 218
97. Composition of Rotations About Two Intersecting Axes 221
98. Composition of a Translation and a Rotation. Screw Motion. 223

PART 3. PARTICLE DYNAMICS

Chapter 16. Introduction to Dynamics, Laws of Dynamics

99. Basic Concepts and Definitions 226
100. The Laws of Dynamics 227
101. Systems of Units 230
102. The Problems of Dynamics for a Free and a Constrained Particle 230
103. Solution of the First Problem of Dynamics 231

Chapter 17. Differential Equations of Motion for a Particle and Their Integration

104. Rectilinear Motion of a Particle 233
105. Solution of Problems 236
106. Body Falling in a Resisting Medium (in Air) 241
107. Curvilinear Motion of a Particle 244
108. Motion of a Particle Thrown at an Angle to the Horizon in a Uniform Gravitational Field 245

Chapter 18. General Theorems of Particle Dynamics

109. Momentum and Kinetic Energy of a Particle 248
110. Impulse of a Force 249
111. Theory m of the Change in the Momentum of a Parlicie 250
112. Work Done by a Force. Power 251
113. Examples of Calculation of Work 254
114. Theorem of the Change in the Kinetic Energy of a Particle 256
115. Solution of Problems 258
116. Theorem of the Change in the Angular Momentum of a Particle (the Principle of Moments) 264

Chapter 19. Constrained Motion of a Particle and D’Alembert’s Principle

117. Equations of Motion of a Particle Along a Given Fixed Curve 268
118. Determination of the Reactions of Constraints 270
119. D’Alembert’s Principle 272

Chapter 20. Relative Motion of a Particle

120. Equations of Relative Motion and Rest of a Parlicie 275
121. Effect of the Rotation of the Earth on the Equilibrium and Motion of bodies 278
122. Deflection of a Falling Particle from the Vertical by the Earth’s
Rotation 281

Chapter 21. Vibration of a Particle

123. Free Harmonic Motion 284
124. The Simple Pendulum 288
125. Damped Vibrations
126. Forced Vibrations. Resonance 291

Chapter 22. Motion of a Body In the Earth’s Gravitational Field

127. Motion of a Particle Thrown at an Angle to the Horizon In the Earth’s Gravitational Field 299
128. Artificial Earth Satellites. Elliptical Paths 304

PART 4. DYNAMICS OF A SYSTEM AND A RIGID BODY

Chapter 23. Introduction to the Dynamics of a System. Moments of Inertia of Rigid Bodies

129. Mechanical Systems. External and Internal Forces 308
130. Mass of a System. Centre of Mass 309
131. Moment of inertia of a Body About an Axis. Radius of Gyration 310
132. Moments of Inertia of Some Homogeneous Bodies 311
133. Moments of Inertia of a Body About Parallel Axes. The Parallel-Axis (Huygens’) Theorem 313

Chapter 24. Theorem of the Motion of the Centre of Mass of a System

131. The Differential Equations of Motion of a System 315
135. Theorem of the Motion of Centre of Mass 316
136. The Law of Conservation of Motion of Centre of Mass 317
137. Solution of Problems 319

Chapter 25. Theorem of the Change in the Linear Momentum of a System

138. Linear Momentum of a System 323
139. Theorem of the Change in Linear Momentum 324
140. The Law of Conservation of Linear Momentum 325
141. Solution of Problems 326
142. Bodies Having Variable Mass. Motion of a Rocket 329

Chapter 26. Theorem of the Change In the Angular Momentum of a System

143. Total Angular Momentum of a System 332
144. Theorem of the Change in the Angular Momentum of a System
(Ihe Principle of Moments) 333
145. The Law of Conservation of the Total Angular Momentum 334
146. Solution of Problems 337

Chapter 27. Theorem of the Change In the Kinetic Energy of a System

147. Kinetic Energy of a System 339
148. Theorem of Ihe Change in the Kinetic Energy of a System 344
149. Some Cases of Computation of Work 316
150. Solution of Problems 318
151. Field of Force. Potential Energy 353
152. The Law of Conservation ol Mechanical Energy 355

Chapter 28. Some Cases of Rigid-Body Motion

153. Rotation of a Rigid Body 355
154. The Compound Pendulum 359
155. Determination of Moments ol Inertia by Experiment 361
156. Plane Motion of a Rigid Body 361
157. Approximate Theory of Gyroscopic Action 368

Chapter 29. D’Alembert’s Principle. Forces Acting on the Axis ol a – y r Rotating Body

158. D’Alembert’s Principle for a System 373
159. The Principal Vector and the Principal Moment of the Inertia
Forces of a Rigid Body 374
160. Solution of Problems 376
161. Dynamical Pressures on the Axis til a Rotating Body 380
162. The Principal Axes of Inertia of a Body. Dynamic Balancing of Masses 382

Chapter 30. The Principle of Virtual Work and Ihe General Equation of Dynamics

163. Virtual Displacements of a System. Degrees of Freedom 386
164. Idea] Constraints 388
165. The Principle of Virtual Work 368
166. Solution of Problems 390
167. The General Equation of Dynamics 395

Chapter 31. The Theory of Impact

168. The Fundamental Equation of Ihe Theory of Impact 398
169. General Theorems of Ihe Theory of Impact 400
170. Coefficient of Restitution 401
171. Impact of a Body Against a Fixed Obstacle 403
172. Direct Central Impact of Two Bodies (Impact of Spheres) 405
173. Loss of Kinetic Energy in Perfectly Inelastic Impact. Carnot’s Theorem 407
174. Impact with a Rotating Body 409

Name Index 414
Subject Index 414

 

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The Minor Planets – Zigel

In this post, we will see the book The Minor Planet by F. Zigel.

Screenshot 2020-01-03 at 11.49.28 AM

About the book

Studies of the asteroids and their relationship to meteroids and comets are discussed, and details are given on the more interesting asteroids. Direct astronomical observation and laboratory data on meteorites, singly and in combination, are used to study the asteroids. The real and apparent motion and orbits are described, along with asteroid family identification and the three-body problem. The characteristics are given of the Trojan group, Eros, Ganymede and its group, Hidalgo, Icarus, and the Amor, Apollo, Adonis, and Hermes group. the small bodies in the solar system are identified as asteroids, comets, and products of their destruction (meteorites, meteoric bodies, and cosmic dust), and their physical characteristics and composition are outlined. The composition of tektites and locations of discovery are discussed, and it is felt that they are most likely to be glassy meteorites. The hypothetical planet Phaeton is also considered and it is pointed out that the problem of the origin of the asteroid belt is still unsolved.

19720017223_0040

Where did that group of minor planets come from, revolving around the Sun between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter? Are the minor planets related to the meteorites that strike the Earth? What role could the minor planets play in the plans for the conquest of space? These are a few of the questions discussed in this book by F. Yu. Zigel.

The reader will also learn about the history of the study of asteroids, modern methods of investigating them, and about some of the interesting minor planets— Icarus, Hermes, Eros and others.

19720017223_0042

The book was translated to English from the Russian “Malyye Planety”  Nauka Press, Moscow, 1969 by NASA in 1972.

The Internet Archive Link

Note: There are many translations of space-technology and astronomy/astrophysics related Russian books done under Technical Translations of NASA Technical Documents. Do explore this collection.

Bonus: These two articles may be of interest in the same subject area

Meteors – Development of Meteoric Astronomy in the USSR by S. Levin

Sputniks and Meteors by B. Levin

The above two articles are part of Defense Technical Information Archive which also has loads of translations from Russian sources.

Contents

ASTEROIDS – THEIR SIGNIFICANCE TODAY 1

SOME HISTORY 4

METHODS OF STUDYING THE MINOR PLANETS 15

THE MOTION AND ORBITS OF THE ASTEROIDS 23

IMPORTANT ASTEROIDS 29

THE PHYSICAL NATURE OF THE MINOR PLANETS 38

SMALL BODIES IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM 49

ASTEROIDS IN THE LABORATORY 64

THE ENIGMA OF TEKTITES 77

WAS THERE EVER A PLANET PHAETON? 83

ASTEROIDS AND ASTRONAUTICS 99

REFERENCES 102

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