General Chemistry Volume 1 – N.L. Glinka

In this post ( my debut post on mirtitles.org and the site’s 375th !) we will see an amazing book on chemistry titled General Chemistry Volume 1 by Nikolai Glinka and edited by Veniamin Rabinovich.

About the book ( From the Back Cover)

Professor N. Glinka’s textbook systematizes the theoretical aspects and includes an extensive collection of reference data tor the course in general chemistry. Great attention is given to the structure of atoms and molecules, the laws of chemical reactions, and oxidation-reduction, processes. The book has been very popular in the Soviet Union and other countries for many years. During the author’s life, it saw 12 editions in Russian and was repeatedly published in other languages. The time that has elapsed after the author’s death, however required the introduction of appreciable amendments into the book, first of all because of the deep penetration of chemistry into many branches of the national economy and of the tremendous growth in the volume of the factual material of chemistry. The required revision of the textbook was carried out in its sixteenth Russian edition (1973). An additional revision of the book mainly due to the transition to SI units of physical quantities and the associated alterations in the terminology was carried out in the nineteenth Russian edition (1977). The present English text has been translated from the 21st Russian edition (1980), and to facilitate work with the book, has been divided into two volumes. The book is intended for students of higher educational institutions not majoring in chemistry. It will also be very helpful for persons studying the fundamentals of chemistry independently, and for students of chemical technical schools and the senior classes of secondary schools.

This book was hugely popular in the Soviet Union and other countries for many years. It was first published in 1958 and revised from the 1980 enlarged and updated Russian edition. Seriously though I have never read a book before this one that had explained General Chemistry in such an elucidating manner. Especially the way the chapter The Fundamentals of Chemical Reactions is explained is amazing. The Volume 1 and Volume 2 together contains everything from Inorganic Chemistry that we read in 10+2. Thank you very much The Mitr for cleaning and bookmarking the pdf and helping me make my first post. Volume 2 to follow.

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Contents

Preface to the Third English Edition 5

Introduction 11

1. Matter and Its Motion 11 2. Substances and Their Changes. The Subject of Chemistry 12 3. The Importance of Chemistry. Chemistry in the National Economy of the USSR 13

Chapter 1. The Atomic and Molecular Concept 15

4. Law of Conservation of Mass 16 5. Essence of the Atomic and Molecular Concept 18 6. Elementary Substance and Chemical Element 20 7. Law of Definite Proportions. Law of Multiple Proportions 22 8. Law of Combining Volumes. Avogadro Law 24 9. Atomic and Molecular Masses. The Mole 25 10. Determining the Molecular Masses of Gaseous Substances 27 11. Partial Pressure of a Gas 30 12. Equivalent. Law of Equivalents 31 13. Determination of Atomic Masses. Valence 33 14. Chemical Symbols 37 15. Most Important Classes of Inorganic Substances 38 16. Chemical Calculations 44

Chapter 2. Mendeleev’s Periodic Law 48

17. Mendeleev’s Periodic Law 48 18. The Periodic Table of Elements 50 19. Significance of the Periodic Table 55

Chapter 3. Structure of the Atom. Development of the Periodic Law 58 20. Radioactivity 58 21. Nuclear Model of the Atom 61 22. Atomic Spectra 63 23. The Quantum Theory of Light 65 24. Structure of an Atom’s Electron Shell According to Bohr 69 25. Initial Concepts of Quantum Mechanics 72 26. Wave Function 74 27. Energy State of an Electron in an Atom 76 28. Principal Quantum Number 79 29. Orbital Quantum Number. Shapes of Electron Clouds 80 30. Magnetic and Spin Quantum Numbers 86 31. Many-Electron Atoms 89 32. The Pauli Exclusion Principle. Electron Configuration of Atoms and the Periodic Table 91 33. The Dimensions of Atoms and Ions 103 34. Ionization Energy and Affinity to Electron 105 35. Structure of Atomic Nuclei. Isotopes 108 36. Radioactive Elements and Their Decay 111 37. Artificial Radioactivity. Nuclear Reactions 115

Chapter 4. The Chemical Bond and the Structure of Molecules 119

38. The Theory of Chemical Structure 120 39. Covalent Bond. The Method of Valence Bonds 124 40. Non-Polar and Polar Covalent Bond 129 41. Ways of Forming a Covalent Bond 133 42. Direction of a Covalent Bond 138 43. Hybridization of Atomic Electron Orbitals 141 44. Multiple-Centre Bonds 145 45. The Method of Molecular Orbitals 148 46. Ionic Bond 158 47. Hydrogen Bond 162

Chapter 5. The Structure of Solids and Liquids 165 48. Intermolecular Interaction 165 49. The Crystalline State of a Substance 166 50. The Internal Structure of Crystals 168 51. Real Crystals 171 52. The Amorphous State of a Substance 172 53. Liquids 173

Chapter 6. Fundamental Laws of Chemical Reactions 175 54. Energy Conversions in Reactions 175 55. Thermochemistry 176 56. Thermochemical Calculations 178 57. Rate of a Chemical Reaction 180 58. Dependence of Reaction Rate on the Reactant Concentrations 182 59. Dependence of Reaction Rate on the Temperature and Nature of the Reactants 184 60. Catalysis 187 61. Reaction Rate in Heterogeneous Systems 190 62. Chain Reactions 191 63. Irreversible and Reversible Reactions. Chemical Equilibrium 193 64. Displacement of Chemical Equilibrium. Le Chatelier’s Principle 196 65. Factors Determining the Direction of Chemical Reactions 200 66. Thermodynamic Quantities. Internal Energy and Enthalpy 205 67. Thermodynamic Quantities. Entropy and Gibbs Energy 208 68. Standard Thermodynamic Quantities. Chemico-Thermodynamic Calculations 211

Chapter 7. Water. Solutions 216

69. Water in Nature 216 70. The Physical Properties of Water 217 71. Phase Diagram of Water 220 72. The Chemical Properties of Water 223 73. A Characteristic of Solutions. The Dissolving Process 224 74. Concentration of Solutions 225 75. Hydrates and Crystal Hydrates 227 76. Solubility 229 77. Supersaturated Solutions 234 78. Osmosis 235 79. Vapour Pressure of Solutions 238 80. Freezing and Roiling of Solutions 240

Chapter 8. Solutions of Electrolytes 243

81. Features of Solutions of Salts, Acids, and Bases 243 82. The Theory of Electrolytic Dissociation 245 83. The Dissociation Process 247 84. Degree of Dissociation. Strength of Electrolytes 248 85. Dissociation Constant 249 86. Strong Electrolytes 252 87. Properties of Acids, Bases, and Salts from the Viewpoint of the Theory of Electrolytic Dissociation 255 88. Net Ionic Equations 258 89. Solubility Product 261 90. Dissociation of Water. pH 263 91. Shift of Ionic Equilibria 266 92. Hydrolysis of Salts 270

Chapter 9. Oxidation-Reduction Reaction. Fundamentals of Electrochemistry 277 93.

Oxidation of Elements 277 94. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions 278 95. Compiling Equations of Oxidation-Reduction Reactions 279 96. Most Important Oxidizing and Reducing Agents 283 97. Oxidation-Reduction Duality. Intramolecular OxidationReduction 284 98. Chemical Sources of Electrical Energy 286 99. Electrode Potentials 292 100. Electromotive Series of Metals 303 101. Electrolysis 306 102. Laws of Electrolysis 311 103. Electrolysis in Industry 312 104. Electrochemical Polarization. Overvoltage 315

Chapter 10. Dispersed Systems. Colloids 318 105.

The Dispersed State of a Substance. Dispersed Systems 318 106. State of a Substance at a Phase Interface 323 107. Colloids and Colloidal Dispersions 325 108. Dispersion Analysis. Optical and Molecular-Kinetic Properties of Dispersed Systems 330 109. Sorption and Sorption Processes. Molecular Adsorption 333 110. Ion-Exchange Adsorption 337 111. Chromatography 340 112. Electrokinetic Phenomena 343 113. Stability and Coagulation of Dispersed Systems 346 114. Structure Formation in Dispersed Systems. The Physicochemical Mechanics of Solids and Dispersed Structures 351

Name Index 357

Subject Index 359

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A Modern Handbook of Physics – Yavorsky and Detlaf

In this post, we will see the much-awaited book A Modern Handbook of Physics by B. M. Yavorksy and A. A. Detlaf.

IMG_20190707_0001

About the book (From the Preface)

The basic sciences and physics, in particular, are of prime importance today in the training of engineers for the various branches of the national economy. This has led to fundamental changes in recent years in the teaching of physics in engineering institutes, and to the students of other educational institutions in which they do not major in physics. The scope and scientific level of physics courses have been substantially supplemented and cover the main trends in the development of modern physics. Consequently, the physics textbooks for engineering students have inevitably become three-volume editions of almost fifteen hundred pages. The need has arisen, in this connection, for a concise handbook on this subject.

The aim of the authors was to fulfill this need. In scope and depth this handbook includes all of the definitions, formulas and information covered in the most comprehensive and up-to-date physics courses of engineering institutes
and the physics departments of universities and colleges. Physical laws are concisely formulated, all the necessary explanations are given and, in many cases, derivations as well. Though it plays a vital role in the teaching of physics, experimental material has been omitted. This is due only to a lack of space. All the units and symbols comply with the requirements of the SI Units of physical quantities and systems of units are listed and dealt with in a short appendix.

This handbook is designed primarily for engineering students, as well as college and university students studying, but not majoring in physics. It can be used to advantage by engineers and graduate students, as well as by instructors and lecturers of intermediate schools and colleges.

Mathematical knowledge required in using the handbook is within the scope of the ordinary mathematics courses of engineering institutes. The detailed index and the numerous cross references, indicating the chapter, section and subsection, are of aid in finding any required information.

The book was translated from the Russian by Nicholas Weinstein and was published by Mir in 1982. This is called the “Modern” handbook, as there exists another “Handbook of Physics” by the same authors which is about 1000 pages long.

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Contents

Front Cover 1
Title Page 7
Contents 9
Preface 21

PART ONE MECHANICS 23

CHAPTER 1 KINEMATICS 23
1.1 Mechanical Motion. The Subject Matter of Mechanics 23
1.2 Frames of Reference. Path, Path Length and Displacement Vector of a Particle 24
1.3 Velocity 28
1.4 Acceleration 31
1.5 Translational and Rotary Motion of a Rigid Body 33

CHAPTER 2 NEWTON’S LAWS 38
2.1 Newton’s First Law. Inertial Frames of Reference 38
2.2 Force 39
2.3 Mass. Momentum 42
2.4 Newton’s Second Law 44
2.5 Newton’s Third Law. Motion of the Centre of Mass 46
2.6 Motion of a Body of Variable Mass 48
2.7 Law of Conservation of Momentum 50
2.8 Galilean Transformations. Mechanical Principle of Relativity 52

CHAPTER 3 WORK AND MECHANICAL ENERGY 55
3.1 Energy, Work and Power 55
3.2 Kinetic Energy 60
3.3 Potential Energy 63
3.4 Law of Conservation of Mechanical Energy 67
3.5 Perfectly Elastic and Inelastic Collisions 70

CHAPTER 4 DYNAMICS OF ROTARY MOTION 74
4.1 Moment of Force and Angular Momentum 74
4.2 Moment of Inertia 78
4.3 The Fundamental Law in the Dynamics of Rotary Motion 81
4.4 Law of Conservation of Angular Momentum 85

CHAPTER 5 FUNDAMENTALS OF THE SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY 88
5.1 Postulates of the Special Theory of Relativity 88
5.2 Simultaneity of Events. Synchronization of Clocks 91
5.3 Lorentz’s Transformations 93
5.4 Relativity of Lengths and Time Intervals. Time Interval Between Two Events 94 453
5.5 Transformation of Velocities and Accelerations in Relativistic Kinematics 100
5.6 Basic Law of Relativistic Dynamics 103
5.7 Mass-Energy Relation 105

CHAPTER 6 GRAVITATION 108
6.1 Law of Universal Gravitation 108
6.2 Gravitational Field 111
6.3 Kepler’s Laws. Space Velocities 116

CHAPTER 7 MOTION IN NONINERTIAL FRAMES OF REFERENCE 119
7.1 Kinematics of Relative Motion 119
7.2 Inertial Forces 121
7.3 Relative Motion in a Frame of Reference Fixed to the Earth. Gravity Force and Weight of a Body 123
7.4 Principle of Equivalence 127

PART TWO FUNDAMENTALS OF MOLECULAR PHYSICS AND THERMODYNAMICS 130

CHAPTER 8 IDEAL GASES 130
8.1 Subject Matter of Molecular Physics.Thernal Motion 130
8.2 Statistical and Thermodynamic Methods of Investigation 131
8.3 Thermodynamic Variables. Equations of State. Thermodynamic Processes 133
8.4 Equation of State of an Ideal Gas 136

CHAPTER 9 FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 138
9.1 Total and Internal Energy of a System 138
9.2 Heat and Work 141
9.3 First Law of Thermodynamics 144
9.4 Graphical Representation of Thermodynamic Processes and Work 145
9.5 Heat Capacity of Matter. Applying the First Law of Thermodynamics to Isoprocesses in an Ideal Gas 147

CHAPTER 10 KINETIC THEORY OF GASES 155
10.1 Certain Information on Classical Statistical Physics 155
10.2 Basic Equation of the Kinetic Theory of Gases 156
10.3 Maxwell’s Molecular Velocity and Energy Distribution Law (Maxwell’s Distribution Law) 158
10.4 Particle Distribution in a Potential Force Field (Boltzmann Distribution) 163
10.5 Mean Free Path of Molecules 165
10.6 Principle of the Equipartition of Energy. Internal Energy of an Ideal Gas 166
10.7 Heat Capacity of Monatomic, Diatomic and Polyatomic Gases 169
10.8 Transport Phenomena in Gases 174
10.9 Properties of Rarified Gases 179

CHAPTER 11 SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 181
11.1 Cycles. The Carnot Cycle 181
11.2 Reversible and Irreversible Processes 185
11.3 Second Law of Thermodynamics 186
11.4 Entropy and Free Energy 189
11.5 Statistical Interpretation of the Second Law of Thermodynamics 192
11.6 Fluctuations 193
11.7 Brownian Movement 196
11.8 Third Law of Thermodynamics 197

CHAPTER 12 REAL GASES AND VAPOURS 198
12.1 Forces of Intermolecular Interaction 198
12.2 Van der Waals Equation of State 204
12.3 Isothermals of Real Gases. Phase Transitions 206
12.4 Superfluidity of Helium 209

CHAPTER 13 LIQUIDS 211
13.1 Certain Properties of Liquids 211
13.2 Frenkel’s Hole Theory of the Liquid State 212
13.3 Diffusion and Viscosity Phenomena in Liquids 214
13.4 Surface Tension of Liquids 215
13.5 Wetting and Capillary Phenomena 217
13.6 Vaporization and Boiling of Liquids 221

PART THREE ELECTRODYNAMICS 224

CHAPTER 14 ELECTRIC CHARGES. COULOMB’S LAW 224
14.1 Introduction 224
14.2 Coulomb’s Law 225

CHAPTER 15 ELECTRIC FIELD STRENGTH AND DISPLACEMENT 228
15.1 Electric Field. Field Strength 228
15.2 Principle of Superposition of Electric Fields 230
15.3 Electric Displacement. Ostrogradsky-Gauss Electric Flux Theorem 234

CHAPTER 16 ELECTRIC FIELD POTENTIAL 238
16.1 Work Done in Moving an Electric Charge in an Electrostatic Field 238
16.2 Potential of an Electrostatic Field 240
16.3 Relation Between the Potential and Strength of an Electrostatic field 244
16.4 Conductors in an Electrostatic Field 246

CHAPTER 17 CAPACITANCE 248
17.1 Capacitance of an Isolated Conductor 248
17.2 Mutual Capacitance. Capacitors 249

CHAPTER 18 DIELECTRICS IN AN ELECTRIC FIELD 253
18.1 Dipole Moments of Molecules of a Dielectric 253
18.2 Polarization of Dielectrics 255
18.3 Relation Between Displacement, Field Strength and Polarization Vectors 259
18.4 Ferroelectric Materials 261

CHAPTER 19 ENERGY OF AN ELECTRIC FIELD 264
19.1 Energy of a Charged Conductor and an Electric Field 264
19.2 Energy of a Polarized Dielectric 267

CHAPTER 20 DIRECT ELECTRIC CURRENT 268
20.1 Concept of an Electric Current 268
20.2 Current and Current Density 269
20.3 Fundamentals of the Classical Electron Theory of Electrical Conduction in Metals 271

CHAPTER 21 DIRECT CURRENT LAWS 274
21.1 Extraneous Forces 274
21.2 Ohm’s Law and the Joule-Lenz Law 275
21.3 KirchhoH’s Laws 279

CHAPTER 22 ELECTRIC CURRENT IN LIQUIDS ND GASES 282
22.1 Faraday’s Laws of Electrolysis. Electrolytic Dissociation 282
22.2 Atomicity of Electric Charges 284
22.3 Electrolytic Conduction of Liquids 284
22.4 Electrical Conduction in Gases 286
22.5 Various Types of Gas Discharges 287
22.6 Certain Information on Plasma 290

CHAPTER 23 MAGNETIC FIELD OF DIRECT CURRENT 294
23.1 Magnetic Field. Ampere’s Law 294
23.2 The Biot-Savarf-Laplace Law 296
23.3 Simplest Cases of Magnetic Fields Set Up by Direct Currents 300
23.4 Interaction of Conductors. Effect of a Magnetic Field on Current-Carrying Conductors 306
23.5 Total Current Law. Magnetic Circuits 308
23.6 Work Done in Moving a Current-Carrying Conductor in a Magnetic Field 312

CHAPTER 24 MOTION OF CHARGED PARTICLES IN ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS 314
24.1 Lorentz Force 314
24.2 Hall Effect 318
24.3 Charge-fo-Mass Ratio of Particles. Mass Spectroscopy 321
24.4 Charged Particle Accelerators 322

CHAPTER 25 ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION 327
25.1 Basic Law of Electromagnetic Induction 327
25.2 Phenomenon of Self-Induction 331
25.3 Mutual Induction 334
25.4 Energy of a Magnetic Field Set up by an Electric Current 336

CHAPTER 26 MAGNETIC MATERIALS IN A MAGNETIC FIELD 339
26.1 Magnetic Moments of Electrons and Atoms 339
26.2 An Atom in a Magnetic Field 341
26.3 Diamagnetic and Paramagnetic Materials in a Uniform Magnetic Field 344
26.4 Magnetic Field in Magnetic Materials 348
26.5 Ferromagnetic Materials 350

CHAPTER 27 FUNDAMENTALS OF MAXWELL S THEORY 354
27.1 General Features o! Maxwell’s Theory 354
27,2 Maxwell’s First Equation 355
27.3 Displacement Current. Maxwell’s Second Equation 357
27.4 Complete Set of Maxwell’s Equations for an Electromagnetic Field 361

PART FOUR OSCILLATIONS AND WAVES 366

CHAPTER 28 FREE HARMONIC OSCILLATIONS 366
28.1 Harmonic Oscillations 366
28.2 Mechanical Harmonic Vibrations 370
23.3 Free Harmonic Oscillations in an Oscillatory Electric Circuit 376
28.4 Adding Harmonic Oscillations 378

CHAPTER 29 DAMPED AND FORCED OSCILLATIONS 388
29.1 Damped Oscillations 388
29.2 Forced Mechanical Vibration 392
29.3 Forced Electrical Oscillation 397

CHAPTER 30 ELASTIC WAVES 402
30.1 Longitudinal and Transverse Waves in an Elastic Medium 402
30.2 Travelling Wave Equation 405
30.3 Phase Velocity and Energy of Elastic Waves 410
30.4 Principle of Superposition of Waves. Group Velocity
30.5 Interference of Waves. Standing Waves 418
30.6 Doppler Effect in Acoustics 424

CHAPTER 31 ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES 426
31.1 Properties of Electromagnetic Waves 426
31.2 Energy of Electromagnetic Waves 431
31.3 Electromagnetic Radiation 434
31.4 Electromagnetic Spectrum 437
31.5 Reflection and Refraction of Electromagnetic Waves at the Interface Between Two Dielectric Media 439
31.6 Doppler Effect 444

PART FIVE OPTICS 448

CHAPTER 32 INTERFERENCE OF LIGHT 448
32.1 Monochromaticity and Time Coherence of Light 448
32.2 Interference of Light. Spatial Coherence of Light 450
32.3 Interference of Light in Thin Films 457
32.4 Multiwave Interference 461

CHAPTER 33 DIFFRACTION OF LIGHT 465
33.1 Huygens-Fresnel Principle 465
33.2 Fresnel Diffraction 469
33.3 Fraunhofer Diffraction 471
33.4 Diffraction by a Space Lattice 478
33.5 Resolving Power of Optical Instruments 480
33.6 Holography 482

CHAPTER 34 ABSORPTION, SCATTERING AND DISPERSION OF LIGHT. VAVILOV-CHERENKOV RADIATION 485
34.1 Interaction of Light With Matter 485
34.2 Absorption of Light 486
34.3 Scattering of Light 489
24.4 Normal and Anomalous Light Dispersion 491
34.5 Classical Electron Theory of Light Dispersion 493
34.6 Vavilov-Cherenkov Radiation 496

CHAPTER 35 POLARIZATION OF LIGHT 499
35.1 Polarization of Light in Reflection and Refraction at the Interface Between Two Dielectric Media 499
35.2 Birefringence (Double Refraction) 502
35.3 Interference of Polarized Light 508
35.4 Artificial Optical Anisotropy 512
35.5 Rotation of the Plane of Polarization 514

CHAPTER 36 THERMAL RADIATION 515
36.1 Thermal Radiation. Kirchhoff’s Law 515
36.2 Sfefan-Boltzmann and Wien Laws 520
36.3 Planck’s Formula 522
36.4 Optical Pyrometry 526

CHAPTER 37 FUNDAMENTALS OF QUANTUM OPTICS 528
37.1 External Photoelectric Effect (Photoemissive Effect) 528
37.2 Mass and Momentum of the Photon. Light Pressure 532
37.3 Compton Effect 534
37.4 Wave-Particle Duality of the Properties of Light 537

PART SIX ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS 539

CHAPTER 38 ELEMENTS OF QUANTUM MECHANICS 539
38.1 Wave-Particle Dualism of the Properties of Particles of Matter 539
33.2 Schrodinger Wave Equation 542
38.3 Motion of a Free Particle 544
38.4 A Particle in a One-Dimensional Infinitely Deep Potential Well 545
38.5 Linear Harmonic Oscillator 547
38.6 Heisenberg Indeterminacy Principle 552
38.7 Tunnel Effect 555

CHAPTER 39 STRUCTURE OF ATOMS AND MOLECULES AND THEIR OPTICAL PROPERTIES 558
39.1 The Hydrogen Atom and Hydrogen-Like Ions 558
39.2 Space Quantization 563
39.3 Pauli Exclusion Principle. Mendeleev’s Periodic Table 565
39.4 Chemical Bonds and Molecular Structure 567
39.5 Optical Properties of Molecules. Molecular Spectra 570
39.6 Raman Scattering of Light 572
39.7 Luminescence. X rays 574
39.8 Stimulated Emission of Radiation. Lasers 577

PART SEVEN BASIC SOLID-STATE PHYSICS 583

CHAPTER 40 STRUCTURE AND CERTAIN PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS 583
40.1 Structure of Solids 583
40.2 Thermal Expansion of Solids 584
40.3 Brief Information on the Elastic Properties of Solids 586
40.4 Basic Concepts of Phase Transitions in Solids 589

CHAPTER 41 AN OUTLINE OF THE QUANTUM PHYSICS OF SOLIDS 592
41.1 Basic Concepts of Quantum Statistics 592
41.2 Bose-Einsfein and Fermi-Dirac Distribution Functions 593
41.3 Degeneracy of Systems of Particles Described by Quantum Statistics 596
41.4 Degenerate Electron Fermi Gas in Metals 598
41.5 Quantum Theory of Electrical Conduction in Metals 602
41.6 Superconductivity 605
41.7 Heat Capacity of Solids 609
41.8 Band Theory of Solids 614
41.9 Metals and Dielectrics in the Band Theory 618
41.10 Electrical Conduction of Semiconductors 619
41.11 Concept of Contact Electrical Phenomenon Metals and Semiconductors 624

PART EIGHT NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND ELEMENTARY PARTICLES 630

CHAPTER 42 STRUCTURE AND BASIC PROPERTIES OF ATOMIC NUCLEI 630
42.1 Main Properties and Structure of the Nucleus 630
42.2 Binding Energy of Nuclei. Mass Defect 632
42.3 Nuclear Forces 635
42.4 Radioactivity 637
42.5 Alpha Decay 641
42.6 Beta Decay 643
42.7 Gamma Rays 646
42.8 Mossbauer Effect 649
42.9 Nuclear Reactions 652

CHAPTER 43 ELEMENTARY PARTICLES 662
43.1 Preliminary Information on Elementary Particles 662
43.2 Classification of Elementary Particles and Their Interaction 666
43.3 Certain Information on Various Elementary Particles 669
43.4 Certain Conservation Laws in Elementary-Particle Physics 672
43.5 Antiparticles 675
43.6 Structure of the Nucleon 677

PART NINE APPENDICES 680

I. SYSTEMS OF UNITS OF PHYSICAL QUANTITIES 680

II. FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 694

INDEX 699

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Little Mathematics Library – Recursion Sequences – Markushevich

In this post, we will see the book Recursion Sequences by A. I. Markushevich. This book is a part of the Little Mathematics Library series.

About the book

This book is one of the “Popular Lectures in Mathematics” series, widely used by Soviet school mathematics clubs and circles and on teachers’ refresher courses. It is a clear introduction for fifth and sixth-form pupils to the variety of recurring series and progressions and their role in mathematics. Is well illustrated with examples and 73 formulas.

The book was translated from the Russian by V. Zhitomirsky and was first published by Mir in 1975 and reprinted in 1983.

Note: A few weeks ago we got featured on Russian tech website habr.com and our work was received enthusiastically. One of the book lovers from the site, Angelika, contacted us and sent a scan of this book as a gift. Many thanks to Angelika for the scan!

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PS: Have created a good LaTeX template for the Little Mathematics Library series using scrbook class. Will post the details soon.

PPS: And also have the electronic version of this book, done in LaTeX almost ready.

 

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Faust versus Mephistopheles? – Smirnov

In this post, we will see the book Faust versus Mephistopheles? by Kim Smirnov.

faust.jpg

About the book

Where does knowledge lead – does it benefit man or will it prove to be his undoing? This con­troversy between Faust and Mephistopheles in Goethe’s Faust is a sort of key to this book by the Soviet journalist Kim Smirnov. Reflecting on let­ters sent in by his newspaper readers, the author talks to outstanding Soviet scientists-Academicians Victor Ambartsumian, Yevgeny Velikhov and Bonifaty Kedrov, to name but a few-about the interdependence between the socio-political and moral positions of the researcher, what ways he can or cannot take to reach the truth and his moral courage.

The book was translated from the Russian by Peter Doria and was designed by Yuri Luter. Progress published the book in 1985.

You can get the book here.

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Prologue 4
1. Finding a Road 8
2. The Scalpel of Kindness 16
3. Difficult Stars 32
4. What Does It Mean to Be an Optimist? 60
5. The Hour of Introduction 80
6. Logger or Forester? 100
7. On the Other Side of the Rainbow 118
8. The Rem Khokhlov Lecture Hall 135
9. “He Only Earns His Freedom and Existence, Who Daily Conquers Them Anew’’ 163
Epilogue 179

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Units of Physical Quantities and their Dimensions – Sena

In this post, we will look at the book Units of Physical Quantities and their Dimensions by L. A. Sena.

 

Sena-Units-of-Physical-Quantities-and-Their-Dimensions-Mir-1972-fc copy.jpg

About the book

The present book sets out in detail the prin­ciples of constructing systems of units, and also the fundamentals of the theory of dimensions. Together with detailed information on the SI system, which is the preferable one at present, a description is given of other systems of units, and also of some non-system units having prac­tical significance.

The book is intended for students of technical colleges and will also be helpful for physics in­structors in higher and secondary schools.

The book was translated from the Russian by G. Leib and was first published by Mir in 1972.

We were looking for this book for many years. Many thanks to Hitesh for the original scan of the book. We cleaned/OCRed/bookmarked the 2-in-1 scan.

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CONTENTS
Foreword 7

Chapter One. General Concepts on Systems of Basic and Derived Units 11

1.1. Physical Quantities and Their Units 11
1.2. Direct and Indirect Measurements 16
1.3. Basic and Derived Units 18
1.4. Constructing a System of Units 24
1.5. Selection of Basic Units 34
1.6. Non-System Units 40

Chapter Two. Conversion of Units and Dimension Formulas 42

2.1. Dimension Formulas 42
2.2. Conversion of Dimension When Using Different Basic Units 47
2.3. Conversion of Dimensions with Different Defining Relationships 48
2.4. Determining the Relationship between Units of Different Systems 52
2.5. Compilation of Conversion Tables 58
2.6. On the So-called Meaning of Dimension Formulas 59
2.7. Brief Conclusions on Chapters One and Two 62

Chapter Three. Analysis of Dimensions 65

3.1. Determining Functional Relationships by Comparing Dimensions 65
3.2. The II-Theorem and the Method of Similarity 72

Chapter Four. Units of Geometrical and Mechanical Quantities 79
4.1. Introduction 79
4.2. Geometrical Units 80
4.3. Kinematic Units 91
4.4. Static and Dynamic Units 96
4.5. Units of Mechanical and Molecular Properties of a Substance 109

Chapter Five. Thermal Units 121

5.1. Temperature 121
5.2. Temperature Scales 128
5.3. Fixed Temperature Points 130
5.4. Other Thermal Units 130
5.5. Units of Thermal Properties of Substances 135

Chapter Six. Acoustic Units 142

6.1. Objective Characteristics of Mechanical Wave Pro­cesses 142
6.2. Subjective Characteristics of Sound 147
6.3. Some Quantities Connected with the Acoustics of Buildings 150

Chapter Seven. Electrical and Magnetic Units 153

7.1. Introduction 153
7.2. Possible Ways of Constructing Systems of Electrical and Magnetic Units 154
7.3. Units of theCGS System 169
7.4. Units of the SI System 182
7.5. On the So-called Wave Resistance of a Vacuum 196
7.6. International Units 198

Chapter Eight. Units of Radiation 201
8.1. Scale of Electromagnetic Waves 201
8.2. Characteristics of Radiant Energy 202
8.3. Illumination Engineering Units 207
8.4. Relationship between Subjective and Objective Cha­racteristics of Light 212
8.5. Units of Parameters of Optical Instruments 214
8.6. Units of Optical Properties of a Substance 217

Chapter Nine. Selected Units of Atomic Physics 218
9.1. Introduction 218
9.2. Basic Properties of Atomic and Elementary Particles 218
9.3. Effective Interaction Cross Sections 223
9.4. Units of Energy in Atomic Physics 225
9.5. Ionizing Radiation Units 229
9.6. Units of Radioactivity 231
9.7. Ionization, Recombination and Mobility Coefficients 233
9.8. Natural Systems of Units 235

Appendix 1. Logarithmic Units 238
Appendix 2. Measuring the Density of a Liquid with an Areo­ meter 241
Appendix 3. pH Index 242
Appendix 4. Constants 243
Appendix 5. Tables 245
Bibliography 286
Index 288

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A Visit To Transurania – Knorre

In this post, we will see the book A Visit To Transurania -by E. Knorre.

Knorre-A-Visit-to-Transurania-Mir-1974.jpg

About the book:

The synthesis of elements heavier than uranium has opened up new spheres in our knowledge of nature and new fields of nuclear physics and chemistry. The transuranic elements, the heaviest in Mendeleev’s Periodic Table, are throwing new light on the structure of the atomic nucleus and the mechanisms of reactions be­tween nuclei, enabling us to understand the chemical pro­perties of newly produced elements, and to clarify ideas on the Periodic Law.

The story of current nuclear physics is full of surprises and is an intriguing tale of imaginative exploration and painstaking, persistent search, of heartbreaking failure and unexpected results. The author, Elaine Knorre, a science correspondent of the Novosti News Agency, knows many of the people involved personally, and has herself been present at some of the crucial moments in the discovery of new elements. Thus she has an inside knowledge of the story that makes her account interesting and reader will find it attractive.

The book was translated from the Russian by M. Brodskaya and was edited by H. C. Creighton. The book was published by Mir in 1974.

I had purchased this and many other Mir books in the US, a rather ironical fact considering that we need to purchase Soviet literature from the Capitalist heartland.

The Internet Archive Link

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Contents

Chance Plus 7

First Steps beyond Uranium 15

Riddles of the Transuranic Elements 39

Heavy Ions 62

A Machine for ‘Making Atoms’ 68

When Ion Strikes Nucleus 82

Playing Nuclear Patience 89

A New Type of Radioactivity 94

On White Dwarfs and on Earth 112

Uncommon Properties of Common Nuclei 123

How Are New Elements Created? 148

New Flash Chemistry 192

How Many New Elements Can There Be? 198

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Things to Come – Fedchenko

In this post, we will see the book Things to Come composed by V. Fedchenko.

fedchenko-things-to-come-mir-1977

About the book

The book is a collection of essays by leading Soviet scientists who predict how the future will pan out for various fields. The first essay is by Academician Semenov who talks about the power sources for the future. In the next essay, the production technologies for the future are discussed. In the third essay materials science and artificial matter are discussed by Kitaigorodsky. In the fourth essay prospects of transportation in the future are discussed. In the fifth essay aspects of information and communication are discussed. In the final essay, an outline of our interaction with environment and its future is discussed.

The book was published by Mir in 1977.

There are some great line drawings at the head of each essay.

The Internet Archive Link

CONTENTS

SEMENOV N., Power Resources of the Future.
Translated by G. Roberts 7

KOBRINSKY A. and KOBRINSKY N., Production in the Year 2000.
Translated by B. Kuznetsov 53

KITAIGORODSKY A., Future Man-Made Objects and Artificial Matter.
Translated by Y. Nadler 89

MOLYARCHUK V., Transport in the Future.
Translated by B.Kuznetsov 137

PETROVICH N., Information and Communication in the Future.
Translated by B. Kuznetsov 177

PETRYANOV I., Man and His Environment.
Translated by Y. Nadler 225

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