We now come to another book in the Science for Everyone series called Nature of Magnetism. The authors of the book M. I. Kaganov and V. M. Tsukernik say in the opening chapter of the book What is the subject of this book?
The title of the book represents fairly well the subject this book. We shall attempt to explain the Nature of Magnetism. One of the large branches of physics is the physics of electromagnetic phenomena. By the beginning of the 20th century it has seemed that the work of Faraday and Maxwell successfully completed this field of science: completed it in the sense that the main laws governing the behavior of electromagnetic fields were understood, that is, the necessary equations were written, and the task of subsequent generations of physicists was to search for more and more exotic solutions of these equations. But gradually it became clear that research in the field was far from complete. Owing to the injection of quantum ideas, the theory of electromagnetic phenomena has undergone essential changes, no less serious than those in mechanics. Nowadays we are much more careful in evaluating whether a part of physics has been completed or not. Any sufficiently developed science formulates not only its fundamental principles but also the boundaries beyond which these principles are not valid. Unless we go into the atomic structures, quantum mechanics and the theory of electromagnetism, that are basic for our upderstanding of the structure and properties of the surrounding world, can be successfully applied to study an enormously broad field of phenomena. There is no reason to doubt the validity of the laws at present: we are within the limits of their application.
And they continue
Readers are often scared away by mathematical complexities. We did take this factor into account but could not avoid using vectors and operations with them, the notions of function, and of its derivative and integral; however, we never go beyond this level. Some mathematical operations are intentionally shifted to Problems. A reader who solves the problems will understand the book much more profoundly than one who puts off solving them for some time in the future. But what worries us most about the reader’s response does not concern mathematical difficulties. We expect that the main obstacle for the reader will be many new physical concepts.
And it is so, if you are put off by glimpse of a mathematical equation, then the best way is to confront it, otherwise it will be always so. The back cover of the book says:
This popular science physics book, dealing with precisely what the title suggests, exposes the reader to a fascinating interplay of classical, statistical, and quantum approaches to matter.
The book describes microscopic sources of magnetic field and explains why not all macroscopic bodies produce magnetic fields. The question why different bodies behave differently in a response to applied magnetic field is considered, and ferro-magnetism and anti-ferro-magnetism are explained in detail. The study of magnetic structures and other interesting problems are also discussed.
The book was translated from the Russian by V. I. Kisin and was first published by Mir in 1985. I had a hard copy of the book, which I lost after I gave it to someone, the person never returned it (was it purposeful or not I do not know). This electronic copy is a sort of consolation now, thanks Anish.Dot for this book.
You can get the book from here.
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The book has following chapters and sections:
Introduction. What is the subject of this book? 7
Chapter 1 Elementary Magnets
1.1 Electric and Magnetic Dipoles 19
1.2 Gyromagnetic Ratio 25
1.3 Elementary Sources of Magnetic Field Do They Exist? Ampere’s Hypothesis 27
1.4 A Brief Overview: of Quantum Mechanics 33
Uncertainty Relations, Particle-Waves 34
Stationary States 38
More on Hydrogen Atom 42
1.5 Angular Momentum. Space Quantization 45
1.6 Magnetic Moment in Magnetic Field 50
1.7 Spin and Intrinsic Magnetic Moment of the Electron 54
1.8 g Factor 61
1.9 Structure of Atoms 68
Pauli Exclusion Principle 77
1.10 Exchange Energy 84
Chapter 2. Paramagnetism and Diamagnetism
2.1 Magnetic Susceptibility 92
2.2 Magnetic Field Aligns Magnetic Moments 98
Negative Absolute Temperatures 103
Electron Paramagnetic Resonance 109
2.3 Diamagnetism 111
Magnetism Is a Quantum Phenomenon 118
2.4 Metals. Pauli Paramagnetism 121
Fermi and Bose Gases 123
2.5 Metals. Landau Diamagnetism 131
2.6 Superconductors: Ideal Diamagnetics 136
Chapter 3. Ferromagnetism
3.1 Self-ordering of Atomic Magnets 142
3.2 Ferromagnetism as a Result of Exchange Forces 153
Ferromagnetic Metals 159
3.3 The “Para-Ferro” Transition: One ofthe Second-Order Phase Transitions 160
3.4 What Is the Direction of the Magnetic Moment of Ferromagnotics? Energy of Magnetic Anisotropy 168
3.5 Domains 177
3.6 Technical Magnetization Curve 186
3.7 Spin Waves 194
Spin Complexes 208
3.8 Spin Waves as Waves of Nonuniforrn Precession 213
3.9 Gas of Magnons 217
Bose Gas 218
Quantum Oscillator 223
3.10 Magnetization and Heat Capacity Ferromagnetics at Low Temperatures 228
Chapter 4. Antiferrornagnetism
4.1 Antiferromagnetic Ordering 240
4.2 Magnetic Field Changes the Structure of Antiferromagnetics
4.3 Spin Waves: Magnons in Anti-ferromagnetics 256
4.4 How to “See” an magnon? 265
Ferromagnetic Resonance 267
Ferroacoustic Resonance 273
Inelastic Scattering 274