## Physics: A Refresher Course – Yavorsky, Seleznev

In this post, we will see the book Physics: A Refresher Course by B. M. Yavorsky; Yu. A. Seleznev.

# The present book gives definitions of the basic physical concepts and quantities studied in an elementary physics course, formulates physical laws, and briefly explains the essence of the phenomena they describe. Some chapters contain problems and their solutions. The book is intended for a very broad circle of readers: secondary school pupils, students at vocational schools and special secondary educational institutions, and students Inking preparatory courses at institutes. It will be a great help to students preparing for entrance examinations to higher educational establishments. Having in mind people studying physics independently, the authors also included s o m e information on classical and modern physics that is beyond the scope of secondary school syllabi. These chapters and sections are marked with an asterisk. Attention is con­stantly given to the interpretation of the physical meaning of laws and the phenomena they describe. The mathematics needed to use the book is within the scope of a secondary mathematics course.

The book was translated from Russian by G. Leib was published in 1979 by Mir Publishers.

You can get the book here.

Follow us on The Internet Archive: https://archive.org/details/@mirtitles

Write to us: mirtitles@gmail.com

Fork us at GitLab: https://gitlab.com/mirtitles/

Add new entries to the detailed book catalog here.

Preface 5

# PART I MECHANICS

## Chapter 1. Kinematics 17

1. Mechanical Motion 17
2. Displacement Vector. Distance 21
3. Velocity 23
4. Acceleration 26
5. Uniform Rectilinear Motion 28
6. Uniformly Changing Rectilinear Motion 31
7. Free Fall of Bodies 34
8. Motion of a Body Thrown Vertically Upward 35
9. Uniform Circular Motion of a}Particle 38
10. Motion of a Body Thrown at an Angle with the Horizontal 41
11. Rotation of a Perfectly Rigid Body About a Fixed Axis 45

## Chapter 2. Dynamics of Motion of a Point Particle 48

1. Newton’s First Law 48
2. Force 50
3. Mass and Momentum. Density 52
4. Newton’s Second Law 54
5. Newton’s Third Law 57
6. Law of Conservation of Momentum 58
7. Galilean Principle of Relativity 61
8. Forces of Gravity 63
9. Elastic Forces 68
10. Forces of Friction 70
11. Ways of Measuring Mass and Force 72
12. Non-Inertial Reference Frames 77

## Chapter 3*. Elements of Dynamics of Rotation of a Perfectly Rigid Body About a Fixed Axis 79

1. Moment of Force and Moment of Inertia 79
2. Fundamental Law of Rotational Dynamics 82

## Chapter 4. Statics 84

1. Addition and Resolution of Forces Applied to a Point Particle and a Perfectly Rigid Body 84
2. Conditions of Equilibrium of a Point Particle and Perfectly Rigid Body in an Inertial Reference Frame 88
3. Kinds of Equilibrium 91

## Chapter 5. Work and Mechanical Energy 95

1. Work of a Force in the Motion of a Particle and the Translational Motion of a Perfectly Rigid Body 95
2*. Potential and Non-Potential Forces. Conservative and Non-Conservative Systems of Bodies 99
3. Mechanical Energy 104
4. Law of Conservation of Mechanical Energy 105
5. Power 109

## Chapter 6. Elements of Fluid Mechanics 110

1. Mechanical Properties of Fluids 110
2. Fluid Statics 114
3. Motion of Fluids 116
4*. Motion of Solid Bodies in Fluids 124

# PART II MOLECULAR PHYSICS AND FUNDAMENTALS OF THERMODYNAMICS

## Chapter 1. Fundamentals of Molecular-Kinetic Theory 125

1. Basic Concepts and Definitions 125
2. Brownian Motion 127
3. Diffusion 128
4. Forces of Interaction Between Molecules 129
5. Potential Energy of Interaction of Two Molecules 134
6. Structure of Gases, Solids, and Liquids 133

## Chapter 2. Molecular-Kinetic Theory of Ideal Gases 136

1. Ideal Gas 136
2. Velocities of Gas Molecules 137
3*. Mean Free Path of a Molecule 139
4. Fundamental Equation of the Kinetic Theory of Gases 141

## Chapter 3. Ideal Gas Laws 144

1. Equation of State 144
2*. Thermodynamic Processes 148
3. Laws of Isoprocesses in Ideal Gases. Equation of State of an Ideal Gas 150

## Chapter 4. Fundamentals of Thermodynamics 156

1. Total and Internal Energy of a Body (a System of Bodies) 156
2. Work 158
3. Heat 160
4. Heat Capacity 162
5. The First Law of Thermodynamics 163
6*. Reversible and Irreversible Processes 168
7*. Cyclic Processes (Cycles) 169
8*. Carnot Cycle 170
9*. The Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics 172
10*. Heat Engine 174
11*. Refrigerator 176

## Chapter 5. Mutual Transitions of Liquids and Gases 178

1. Evaporation of Liquids 178
2. Saturated Vapour 178
3. Boiling 179
4. Vapour Isotherm 181
5. Critical State of a Substance. Liquefaction of Gases 183
6. Humidity of Air 184

## Chapter 6. Properties of Liquids 186

1. Energy of Surface Layer and Surface Tension 186
2. Wetting. Capillary Phenomena 188

## Chapter 7. Solids and Their Transformation into Liquids 193

1. Kinds of Crystalline Solids 193
2. Elastic Properties of Solids 194
3. Thermal Expansion of Solids and Liquids 197
4. Melting, Crystallization, and Sublimation of Solids 200

# PART III. FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRODYNAMICS

## Chapter 1. Electrostatics 203

1. Basic Concepts. The Law of Conservation of Electric Charge 203
2. Coulomb’s Law 204
3. Electric Field. Field Intensity 208
4. Examples of Electrostatic Fields 213
5. Conductors in an Electrostatic Field 219
6. Dielectrics in an Electrostatic Field 221
7. Work of the Forces of an Electrostatic Field 226
8. Potential of an Electrostatic Field 229
9. Relationship Between Intensity and Potential Difference of an Electrostatic Field 232
10. Capacitance 235
11. Capacitors 237
12. Energy of an Electric Field 240

## Chapter 2. Steady Electric Current 243

1. Basic Concepts and Definitions 243
2. Conditions Needed for a Steady Current to Appear and Be Maintained 246
3. Electromotive Force. Voltage 247
4. Ohm’s Law 248
5. Temperature Dependence of Resistance 252
6. Branching of Currents. Connections of Conductors 253
7. Work and Power of a Current. The Joule-Lenz Law 262

## Chapter 3. Electric Current in Non-Metallic Media 263

1. Current in Electrolytes 263
2. Laws of Electrolysis. Discreteness of Electric Charges 264
3. Current in Gases
4. Semi-Self-Maintained Gas Discharge
5. Self-Maintained Gas Discharge
6. Plasma
7. Current in a Vacuum. Emission Phenomena
8. Two-Electrode Valve—Diode
9. Three-Electrode Valve—Triode
10. Electron Beams. Cathode-Ray Tube
11. Electrical Conduction of Pure Semiconductors
12. Impurity Electrical Conduction of Semiconductors
13. Electrical Properties of p- and n-Type Semiconductor Junctions

## Chapter 4. Magnetic Field of a Steady Current 285

1. Magnetic Field. Induction Vector of a Magnetic Field. Magnetic Flux 285
2. Ampere’s Law 291
3. Magnetic Field of an Electric Current 292
4. Interaction of Parallel Currents 296
5. Action of a Magnetic Field on a Moving Charge. Lorentz Force 297
6. Specific Charge of Particles 301

## Chapter 5. Electromagnetic Induction 302

1. Phenomenon and Law of Electromagnetic Induction 302
2. Induced E.M.F.’s in Moving Conductors 304
3. Induced Electric Field 307
4. Induced Currents in Solid Conductors 308
5. Self-Induction 308
6. Mutual Induction. Transformer 310
7. Energy of a Magnetic Field 312

## Chapter 6. Magnetic Properties of a Substance 314

1. Magnetic Moments of Electrons and Atoms. Electron Spin 314
2. Classification of Magnetic Substances 316
3. Diamagnetism 317
4. Paramagnetism 318
5. Ferromagnetism 320

# PART IV. OSCILLATIONS AND WAVES

## Chapter 1. Mechanical Oscillations 325

1. Basic Concepts and Definitions of Oscillatory Processes 325
2. Velocity and Acceleration of Harmonic Oscillation 328
3. Harmonic Oscillations of a Spring Pendulum 331
4. Harmonic Oscillations of a Mathematical Pendulum 333
5. Energy of Harmonic Oscillatory Motion 335
6. Addition of Harmonic Identically Directed Oscillations 337
7. Damped Oscillations 338
8. Forced Oscillations 340
9. Auto-Oscillations 343

## Chapter 2. Electromagnetic Oscillations 346

1. Free Electromagnetic Oscillations in an Oscillator Circuit 346
2. Forced Electromagnetic Oscillations. Alternating Current 350
3. Alternating-Current Circuit. Resistance 351
4. Inductive Reactance 352
5. Capacitive Reactance 353
6. Ohm’s Law for an Alternating-Current Circuit 354
7. Power of Alternating Current. Effective Values of Current and Voltage 355
8. Resonance in an Alternating-Current Circuit 356
9. Valve Generator 358

## Chapter 3. Elastic Waves. Sound 359

1. Preliminary Concepts 359
2. Transverse and Longitudinal Waves 361
3*. Wave Velocity 363
4. Wavelength 364
5*. Equation of a Plane Wave 365
6*. Energy and Intensity of a Wave. Equation of a Spherical Wave 366
7. Some Characteristics of Sound Waves 367
8. Ultrasounds 369
9*. Interference 370
10*. Standing Waves 373

## Chapter 4. Electromagnetic Waves 376

1. Relationship Between Varying Electric and Magnetic Fields 376
2. Velocity and Some Basic Properties of Electromagnetic Waves 377
3. Energy and Intensity of Electromagnetic Waves 380
4*. Emission of Electromagnetic Waves 381

# PART V. OPTICS

## Chapter 1. Geometrical (Ray) Optics 390

1. The Rectilinear Propagation of Light 390
2. Laws of Reflection and Refraction of Light. Total Reflection 391
3. Plane Mirror. Plane-Parallel Plate. Prism 395
4. Spherical Mirrors 397
5. Lenses 400
6. Concept of Photometry 404
7. Optical Instruments 407

## Chapter 2. Wave Optics (Light Waves) 414

1. The Speed of Light 414
2. Interference 416
3. Diffraction 420
4. Diffraction by a Slit. Diffraction Grating 422
5. Polarization 425
6. Dispersion 427

## Chapter 3. Radiation and Spectra 429

2. Energy Distribution in the Spectrum of a Blackbody 431
3. Luminescence 434
4. Kinds of Spectra 435
5. Infrared and Ultraviolet Radiation 436
6. X-Rays 437
7. The Electromagnetic Spectrum 441

## Chapter 4*. Fundamentals of the Special Theory of Relativity 442

1. Laws of Electrodynamics and the Classical Principle of Relativity 442
2. Postulates of the Special Theory of Relativity 444
3. Concept of the Length of a Body 446
4. Simultaneity of Events. Synchronization of Time-pieces 447
5. Relative Nature of Simultaneity of Events 449
6. Lorentz Transformations 450
7. Relativity of Lengths 451
8. Relativity of Time Intervals 453
9. The Relativistic Law of Velocity Addition 456
10. Relativistic Dynamics. Dependence of Mass on Velocity 457
11. The Mass-Energy Relation 458

## Chapter 5. Quantum Optics 462

1. Basic Concepts 462
2. The Photoelectric Effect 464
3. Laws of the Photoemissive Effect. Einstein’s Photoelectric Equation 466
4. Applications of the Photoelectric Effect 468
5. Light Pressure 470
6. Chemical Action of Light. The Photographic Process 472

# PART VI. ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS

## Chapter 1* Elements of Quantum Mechanics 474

1. De Broglie’s Ideas on the Wave Properties of Particles 474
2. Wave Properties of Electrons, Neutrons, Atoms, and Molecules 476
3. The Physical Meaning of de Broglie Waves 479
4. Linear Harmonic Oscillator. Motion of an Electron in a Limited Region of Space 480
5. Uncertainty Relation 484
6. Part Played by Uncertainty Relations in Studying the Motion of Microparticles 488
7. Zero-Point Energy of a Linear Harmonic Oscillator 490
8. The Degeneracy of Gases 491

## Chapter 2. The Structure of Atoms 493

1. Rutherford’s Nuclear Model of an Atom 493
2. Predicaments in the Classical Explanation of the Nuclear Model of an Atom
3. Line Spectrum of a Hydrogen Atom
4. Bohr’s Postulates 499
5. Bohr’s Model of the Hydrogen Atom 501
6. Substantiation of Bohr’s Postulates and the Physical Meaning of the Electron Orbit in Quantum Mechanics 504
7. Quantization of the Angular Momentum of an Electron and of Its Projection 505
8*. Electron Spin. The Pauli Exclusion Principle 508
9. Mendeleev’s Periodic System of the Elements 510
10*. Lasers and Masers 513

## Chapter 3. Structure and Spectra of Molecules 517

1. General Characteristic of Chemical Bonds 517
2. Ionic Molecules 519
3. Molecules with a Covalent Chemical Bond 521
4*. Molecular Spectra 522

## Chapter 4. Structure and Basic Properties of Atomic Nuclei 526

1. General Characteristic 526
2. Binding Energy. Mass Deficiency 528
3. Nuclear Forces. Drop Nuclear Model 531
5. Displacement Law and Fundamental Law of Radioactive Decay 535
7. Origin of Alpha, Beta, and Gamma Rays 542
8. Nuclear Reaction 545
9. Interaction of Neutrons with a Substance 548
11. Fission of Heavy Nuclei 551
12. Nuclear Fission Chain Reactions, A Nuclear Reactor 554
13. Applications of Nuclear Energy and Radioactive Isotopes 557
15*. Fusion Reactions 561
16. Accelerators 565

## Chapter 5. Elementary Particles 568

1. General 568
2. Classification of Elementary Particles and Their Interactions 570
3*. Cosmic Rays 575
4*. Information on Selected Elementary Particles 576
5. Antiparticles 580
6*. Concept of the Structure of a Nucleon 583

## VIL. Supplements

1. Units and Dimensions of Physical Quantities. Systems of Units 586
2. Basic and Derived Units of the SI System 588
3. Units of Physical Quantities in Mechanics 588
4. Units of Physical Quantities in Molecular Physics and Thermodynamics 590
5. Units of Quantities in Electrodynamics 599
6. Units of Selected Quantities in Wave Processes and Optics 603
7. Selected Units in Atomic and Nuclear Physics 603
8. Selected Physical Constants 607
9. Ways of Measuring Physical Quantities 607
10. Errors in Measuring Physical Quantities 614
11. Processing the Results of Direct Measurements 617
12. Processing the Results of Indirect Measurements 619
13. Approximate Calculations Without Accurate Account

Taken of Errors 623

Name Index 626

Subject Index 627 