The Structure of Matter – Karapetyants, Drakin

In this post, we will see the book The Structure of Matter by M. Karapetyants and S. Drakin.

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About the book

Treated in this book arc present-day ideas on the structure of atoms, molecules and crystals, as well as the nature of che­mical bonds. It is supposed that the reader is acquainted with chemistry within the scope of the secondary-school course and that he has some notion of differential and integral calculus.

The study of this book can precede the learning of a higher- school course in chemistry; it will be conducive in widening the student’s knowledge of inorganic chemistry as well as in study­ ing more deeply organic and analytical chemistry.

The book is designed for students in chemical engineering, polytechnical and other institutes of learning in which inorganic and organic chemistry are studied. It can be found useful for engineers, technicians and scientific workers whose industrial or research work is associated with chemical technology, metal­lurgy, biochemistry, or geochemistry.

The book was translated from the Russian by Y. Nadler and G. Kittell and was first published by Mir in 1974 and the second print in 1978.

The Internet Archive Link

Contents

PREFACE 13

PART I ATOMIC STRUCTURE 15
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 15

1.1. Atoms 15
1.2. The Avogadro Number 16
1.3. Mass and Size of Atoms 19
1.4. The Constituents of an Atom: Electrons and the Nucleus 21

CHAPTER TWO ATOMIC SPECTRA 23

2.1. Principle of Operation of Spectrographs; Kinds of Spectra 23
2.2. The Atomic Spectrum of Hydrogen 24
2.3. The Spectra of Other Elements 25
2.4. The Concept of Light Quantum 26
2.5. History of the Development of the Concepts of Atomic Structure 29

CHAPTER THREE THE WAVE PROPERTIES OF MATERIAL PARTICLES 32

3.1. Dual Nature of Light 32
3.2. The Law of Interdependence of Mass and Energy 34
3.3. Compton Effect 35
3.4. De Broglie Waves 37
3.5. Quantum Mechanics; the Schrodinger Equation 39

CHAPTER FOUR QUANTUM-MECHANICAL EXPLANATION OF ATOMIC STRUCTURE 43

4.1. Solution of the Schrodinger Equation for the One-Dimensional Square-Well Model 43
4.2. Three-Dimensional Square-Well Model 47
4.3. Quantum-Mechanical Explanation of Structure of Hydrogen Atom 50
4.4. Quantum Numbers of Electrons in Atoms 54
4.5. Many-Electron Atoms 58
4.6. Origination of Spectra 61
4.7. Energy Characteristics of Atoms: Ionization Energy and Electron Affinity 64

PART II MENDELEEV’S PERIODIC LAW AND THE STRUCTURE OF ATOMS OF ELEMENTS 68

CHAPTER FIVE INTRODUCTION 68
5.1. The Modern Formulation of the Periodic Law 68
5.2. The Structure of the Periodic System 73
5.3. Predicting the Properties of Substances with the Aid of the Periodic Law 78

CHAPTER SIX THE PERIODIC SYSTEM OF THE ELEMENTS AND THEIR ATOMIC STRUCTURE 80

6.1. Filling of Electron Shells and Subshells 80
6.2. Variation of Ionization Energies 89
6.3. Secondary Periodicity 91

CHAPTER SEVEN ELEMENTARY PRINCIPLES OF FORMS AND PROPERTIES OF CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS 93

7.1. Oxidation State 93
7.2. Atomic and Ionic Radii 95
7.3. Coordination Number 101
7.4. Compounds Containing R-H and R-O- Bonds 102
7.5. Acids
7.6. Dependence of the Strength of Acids and Bases on the Charge and Radius of the Ion of the Element Forming Them 104

CHAPTER EIGHT ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF ELEMENTS AND THEIR COMPOUNDS 106

8.1. First Group 106
8.2. Second Group 107
8.3. Third Group 108
8.4. Fourth Group 110
8.5. Fifth Group 111
8.6. Sixth Group 112
8.7. Seventh Group 112
8.8. Eighth Group 114
8.9. Zero Group 115
8.10. Some Conclusions 116

CHAPTER NINE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PERIODIC LAW 117

PART III THE STRUCTURE OF MOLECULES AND THE CHEMICAL BOND 119

CHAPTER TEN INTRODUCTION 119

10.1. Molecules
10.2. Development of Conceptions of the Chemical Bond and Valence 120
10.3. A. Butlerov’s Theory of Chemical Structure 122
10.4. Structural Isomerism 124
10.5. Spatial Isomerism 126

CHAPTER ELEVEN BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CHEMICAL BOND-LENGTH

11.1. Length of Bonds 132
11.2. Valence Angles 133
11.3. Strength of the Bond 137

CHAPTER TWELVE PHYSICAL METHODS OF DETERMINING MOLECULAR STRUCTURE 141

12.1. Electron-Diffraction Examination 142
12.2. Molecular Spectra 149

CHAPTER THIRTEEN BASIC TYPES OF THE CHEMICAL BOND-IONICAND COVALENT BOND 153

13.1. Electronegativity of the Elements 153
13.2. Ionic and Covalent Bond 155
13.3. The Dipole Moment and Molecular Structure 157
13.4. Effective Charges 162

CHAPTER FOURTEEN QUANTUM-MECHANICAL EXPLANATION OF THE COVALENT BOND 163

14.1. Solution of the Schrodinger Equation Using Approximate Functions 164
14.2. Potential Energy Curves for Molecules 170
14.3. Results of Quantum-Mechanical Treatment of the Hydrogen Molecule by Heitler and London 172
14.4. Valence of the Elements on the Basis of the Heitler and London Theory 178
14.5. Explanation of the Orientation of Valence 183
14.6. Single
14.7. The Donor-Acceptor Bond 200
14.8. The Bond in Electron-Deficient Molecules 205
14.9. Molecular Orbital Method 207
14.10. Molecular Orbitals in Diatomic Molecules 210
14.11. Hiickel Method 215

CHAPTER FIFTEEN THE IONIC BOND 225

15.1. Energy of the Ionic Bond 225
15.2. Ionic Polarization 229
15.3. Effect of Polarization on Properties of Substances 233
15.4. The Polar Bond and Electronegativity 235

CHAPTER SIXTEEN THE CHEMICAL BOND IN COMPLEX COMPOUNDS 237

16.1. Complex Compounds 237
16.2 Isomerism of Complex Compounds 239
16.3. Explanation of the Chemical Bond in Complexes on the Basis of Electrostatic Conceptions 241
16.4. Quantum-Mechanical Interpretation of the Chemical Bond in Complex Compounds 242
16.5. Valence Bond Method 243
16.6. Crystal Field Theory 246
16.7. Molecular Orbitals in Complex Compounds 251

CHAPTER SEVENTEEN THE HYDROGEN BOND 258

PART IV THE STRUCTURE OF MATTER IN THE CONDENSED STATE 264

CHAPTER EIGHTEEN INTRODUCTION 264
18.1. Aggregate States 264
18.2. Molecular Interaction 267

CHAPTER NINETEEN THE CRYSTALLINE STATE 271
19.1. Characteristics of the Crystalline State 271
19.2. Study of Crystal Structure 277
19.3. Types of Crystal Lattices 281
19.4. Some Crystal Structures 283
19.5. Energetics of Ionic Crystals 291

CHAPTER TWENTY LIQUID AND AMORPHOUS STATES 297
20.1. Structure of Liquids 297
20.2. The Structure of Water 300
20.3. Solutions of Electrolytes 301
20.4. The Amorphous State 307

APPENDICES 310
I. Determination of the ratio e/m for an electron. 310
II. Characteristics of wave motion. Interference and diffraction of waves. 311
III. Construction of the Schrodinger equation. 315
IV. Polarization of light. 315
V. Derivation of relationship describing electron diffraction by molecules. 317
VI. Moment of inertia. 321
VII. Expressions for wave functions of hybrid orbitals. 323
VIII. Electron spin and magnetic properties of matter. 324
IX. Calculation of the absorption spectra of polymethylene dyes. 325
X. Solution of homogeneous sets of linear equations. 327

VALUES OF UNITS OF MEASURE AND PHYSICAL CONSTANTS USED IN THE BOOK IN THE

SI SYSTEM OF UNITS 329

NAME INDEX 330

SUBJECT INDEX 332

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5 Responses to The Structure of Matter – Karapetyants, Drakin

  1. Bee says:

    Hi, Thanks for your effort in advance.
    The link of the book is not available.
    best wishes

  2. Mohamd Modamani says:

    Thanks The Mitr.

  3. Hi, Thanks for your effort in advance.

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