Elementary Textbook on Physics Vol 3 – Landsberg

In this post, we will see Elementary Textbook on Physics – Volume 3 – Oscillations And Waves Optics Atomic And Nuclear Physics edited by G. S. Landsberg.

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About the book:

Volume 3 covers aspects of wave motion, oscillations, optics and atomic and modern physics. These topics include:

Basic Concepts. Mechanical Vibrations. Acoustic Vibrations. Electric Oscillations. Wave Phenomena. Interference of Waves. Electromagnetic Waves. Light Phenomena: General. Photometry and Lighting Engineering. Basic Laws of Geometrical Optics. Application of Reflection and Refraction of Light to Image Formation. Optical Systems and Errors. Optical Instruments. Interference of Light. Diffraction of Light. Physical Principles of Optical Holography. Polarization of Light. Transverse Nature of Lightwaves. Electromagnetic Spectrum. Velocity of Light. Dispersion of Light and Colours of Bodies. Spectra and Spectral Regularities. Effects of Light. Atomic Structure. Radioactivity. Atomic Nuclei and Nuclear Power. Elementary Particles. New Achievements in Elementary Particle Physics.

About the series (from Front Jacket and Preface):

Elementary Textbook on Physics first appeared in 1948-52 under the editorship of Academician G.S. Landsberg (1890-1957) and immediately became popular with students preparing for entrance examinations in physics. The success of the book was due very much to the fact that each section was written by a specialist. Contributors to the book included the scientists S.E. Khaikin, M.A. Isakovich, M.A. Leontovich, D.I. Sakharov (Vol. 1), S.G. Kalashnikov (Vol. 2), S.M. Rytov, M.M. Sushchinskii (with the participation of I.A. Yakovlev), F.S. Landsberg-Baryshanskaya, and F.L. Shapiro (Vol. 3).

These three volumes form a course on elementary physics that has become very popular in the Soviet Union. Each sectioh was written by an authority in the appropriate field, while the overall unity and editing was supervised by Academician G.S. Landsberg (1890-1957). This textbook has gone through ten Russian editions and a great deal of effort went into the last edition to introduce SI units and change the terminology and notation for the physical units.

A feature of this course is the relatively small number of formulas and mathematical manipulations. Instead, attention was focussed on explaining physical phenomena in such a way as to combine scientific rigour and a form understandable to school children. Another aspect of the text is the technological application of the physical laws.

These features make the text a world-class textbook.

For students preparing to enter universities and colleges to study physics, and for those it high schools specialising in physics.

The book was translated from the Russian by Natalia Wadhwa and was first published by Mir in 1989.

 

The Internet Archive Link Vol 1

The Internet Archive Link Vol 2

The Internet Archive Link Vol 3

Contents Vol 3

Front Cover 1
Front Jacket 2
Title Page 8
Contents 10
Preface to the First Russian Edition 16
Part One Oscillations and Waves 18
Chapter 1 Mechanical Vibrations Basic Concepts. 18
1.1. Periodic Motion. Period 18
1.2. Oscillatory Systems. Free Oscillations 18
1.3. Pendulum Kinematics of Oscillations 20
1.4. Vibrations of a Timing Fork 21
1.5. Harmonic Oscillations. Frequency 23
1.6. Phase Shift 26
1.7. Dynamics of Pendulum Oscillations 28
1.8. Formula for the Period of a Simple Pendulum 30
1.9. Elastic Vibrations 32
1.10. Torsional Vibrations 34
1.11. Effect of Friction. Damping 35
1.12. Forced Vibrations 38
1.13. Resonance 39
1.14. Effect of Friction on Resonance Phenomena 41
1.15. Examples of Resonance Phenomena 42
1.16. Resonance Phenomena Induced by an Anharmonic Periodic Force 44
1.17. The Relation Between the Form and Harmonic Composition of Periodic Oscillations 47
Chapter 2 Acoustic Vibrations 51
2.1. Acoustic Vibrations 51
2.2. Subject of Acoustics 52
2.3. Musical Tone. Laudness and Pitch 53
2.4. Tembre 54
2.5. Acoustic Resonance 56
2.6. Recording and Reproduction of Sounds 58
2.7. Analysis and Synthesis of Sound 59
2.8. Noises 60
Chapter 3 Electric Oscillations 63
3.1. Electric Oscillations and Methods of Their Observation 63
3.2. Oscillatory Circuit 66
3.3. Mechanical Analogy. Thomson Formula 69
3.4. Electric Resonance 72
3.5. Undamped Oscillations. Self-Excited Oscillatory Systems 75
3.6. Valve Oscillator 78
3.7. Theory of Oscillations 80
Chapter 4 Wave Phenomena 84
4.1. Waves 84
4.2. Wave Propagation Velocity 86
4.3. Radiolocation
4.4. Transverse Waves in a Cord 90
4.5. Longitudinal Waves in an Air Column 93
4.6. Waves on the Surface of a Liquid 96
4.7. Energy Transfer by Waves 98
4.8. Reflection of Waves 101
4.9. Diffraction 103
4.10. Directional Emission 105
Chapter 5 Interference of Waves 108
5.1. Superposition of Waves 108
5.2. Interference of Waves 109
5.3. Conditions for Formation of Interference Maxima and Minima 111
5.4. Interference of Acoustic Waves 113
5.5. Standing Waves 114
5.6. Vibrations of Elastic Bodies as Standing Waves 116
5.7. Free Vibrations of a String 117
5.8. Standing Waves in Plates and Other Extended Bodies 120
5.9. Resonance in the Presence of Many Frequencies 122
5.10. Conditions for a Perfect Sound Emission 124
5.11. Binaural Phase Effect. Sound Direction Finding 126
Chapter 6 Electromagnetic Waves 128
6.1. Electromagnetic Waves 128
6.2. Conditions for a Perfect Emission of Electromagnetic Waves 129
6.3. Oscillator and Aerials 130
6.4. Hertz’ Experiments on Electromagnetic Waves. Lebedev’s Experiments 134
6.5. Electromagnetic Theory of Light. Scale of Electromagnetic Waves 137
6.6. Experiments with Electromagnetic Waves 139
6.7. Popov’s Invention of Radio 146
6.8. Modern Radio Communication 149
6.9. Other Applications of Radio 152
6.10. Propagation of Radio Waves 154
6.11. Concluding Remarks 158
Part Two Geometrical Optics 162
Chapter 7 Light Phenomena: General 162
7.1. Effects of Light 162
7.2. Interference of Light. Colours of Thin Films 164
7.3. Brief Information from the History of Optics 165
Chapter 8 Photometry and Lighting Engineering 167
8.1. Radiant Energy. Luminous Flux 167
8.2. Point Sources of Light 168
8.3. Luminous Intensity and Illuminance 170
8.4. Laws of Illumination 171
8.5. Units of Photometric Quantities 173
8.6. Brightness of Sources 174
8.7. Problems of Lighting Engineering 176
8.8. Appliances for Concentrating Luminous Flux 177
8.9. Reflectors and Scatterers 178
8.10. Brightness of Illuminated Surfaces. 181
8.11. Photometry and Measuring Instruments 182
Chapter 9 Basic Laws of Geometrical Optics 187
9.1. Rectilinearity of Wave Propagation 187
9.2. Rectilinear Propagation of Light. Light Rays 188
9.3. Laws of Reflection and Refraction of Light 193
9.4. Reversibility of Light Rays 197
9.5. Refractive Index 199
9.6. Total Internal Reflection 202
9.7. Refraction in a Plane-parallel Plate 205
9.8. Refraction in a Prism 206
Chapter 10 Application of Reflection and Refraction of Light for Image Formation 209
10.1. Light Source and Its Image 209
10.2. Refraction in a Lens. Focal Points 210
10.3. Images of Points Located on the Principal Optical Axis of a Lens. Lens Equation 215
10.4. Applications of the Thin Lens Equation. Real and Virtual Images 217
10.5. Image of a Point Source and of an Extended Object Formed by a Plane Mirror. Image of a Point Source Formed by a Spherical Mirror 221
10.6. Focal Point and Focal Length of a Spherical Mirror 224
10.7. Relation Between the Positions of a Source and Its Image on the Principal Optical Axis of a Spherical Mirror 225
10.8. Methods of Preparation of Lenses and Mirrors 226
10.9. Images of Extended Objects Formed by Spherical Mirrors and Lenses 227
10.10. Magnification of Images Formed by Spherical Mirrors and Lenses 228
10.11. Image Formation by Spherical Mirrors and Lenses 230
10.12. Optical Power of Lenses 235
Chapter 11 Optical Systems and Errors 237
11.1. Optical System 237
11.2. Principal Planes and Principal Points of a System 237
11.3. Image Construction in a System 239
11.4. Magnification of a System 239
11.5. Drawbacks of Optical Systems 240
11.6. Spherical Aberration 241
11.7. Astigmatism 244
11.8. Chromatic Aberration 245
11.9. Confinement of Beam Cross Sectionsin Optical Systems 246
11.10. Lens Aperture 247
11.11. Brightness of Image 248
Chapter 12 Optical Instruments 251
12.1. Projection Optical Instruments 251
12.2. Photographic Camera 253
12.3. The Human Eye as an Optical System 255
12.4. Optical Instruments Outfitting the Eye 257
12.5. Magnifying Glasses 259
12.6. Microscopes 261
12.7. Resolving Power of Microscopes 263
12.8. Telescopes 263
12.9. Magnification of Telescopes 265
12.10. Telescopes in Astronomy 266
12.11. Image Brightness for Extended and Point Sources 270
12.12. Lomonosov’s Telescope 272
12.13. Binocular Vision and Sensation of Depth. Stereoscopes 272
Part Three Physical Optics 277
Chapter 13 Interference of Light 277
13.1. Geometrical and Physical Optics 277
13.2. Experimental Realization of Interference of Light 277
13.3. Explanation of Thin Film Colours 281
13.4. Newton’s Rings 282
13.5. Calculation of Wavelength of Light with the Help of Newton’s Rings 284
Chapter 14 Diffraction of Light 287
14.1. Bundles of Rays and the Shape of Wave Surface 287
14.2. Huygens’ Principle 288
14.3. Reflection and Refraction from the Viewpoint of Huygens’ Principle 289
14.4. Huygens’ Principle in Fresnel Interpretation 291
14.5. Simple Diffraction Phenomena 292
14.6. Explanation of Diffraction by Fresnel’s Method 295
14.7. Resolving .Power of Optical Instruments 296
14.8. Diffraction Grating 299
14.9. Diffraction Grating as a Spectral Instrument 301
14.10. Preparation of Diffraction Gratings 302
14.11. Diffraction at an Oblique Incidence of Light on a Grating 302
Chapter 15 Physical Principles of Optical Holography 304
15.1. Photography and Holography 304
15.2. Holographic Recording with a Plane Reference Wave 307
15.3. Obtaining Optical Images by Reconstructing the Wave Front 310
15.4. Holographing by Opposing Light Beam Method 313
15.5. Application of Holography to Optical Interferometry 315
Chapter 16 Polarization of Light. TransverseNature of Light Waves 320
16.1. Passage of Light Through Tourmaline 320
16.2. Hypotheses Explaining Observed Phenomena. Polarized Light 321
16.3. Mechanical Model of Polarization 322
16.4. Polaroids 323
16.5. Thinsverse Nature of Light Waves and Electromagnetic Theory of Light 323
Chapter 17 Electromagnetic Spectrum 325
17.1. Methods of Investigating Electromagnetic Waves of Different Wavelengths 325
17.2. Infrared and Ultraviolet Radiation 326
17.3. Discovery of X-rays 327
17.4. Effects of X-rays 329
17.5. X-ray Ihbe 330
17.6. Origination and Nature of X-rays 331
17.7. Scale of Electromagnetic Waves 332
Chapter 18 Speed of Light 334
18.1. First Attempts to Determine the Speed of Light 334
18.2. Determination of the Speed of Light by Roemer 335
18.3. Measurement of the Speed of Lightby Rotating-Mirror Method 336
Chapter 19 Dispersion of Light and Colours ofBodies 339
19.1. State-of-the-art in Chromatography Before Newton’s Studies 339
19.2. Main Discovery of Newton in Optics 339
19.3. Interpretation of Newton’s Observations 341
19.4. Dispersion of Refractive Indicesfor Different Materials 342
19.5. Complementary Colours 343
19.6. Spectral Composition of Light Emitted by Various Sources 345
19.7. Light and Colours of Bodies 346
19.8. Absorption
19.10. Coloured Bodies Illuminated by Coloured Light 348
19.11. Masking and Unmasking 349
19.12. Colour Saturation 350
19.13. Colour of the Sky and Dawns 351
Chapter 20 Spectra and Spectral Regularities 354
20.1. Spectroscopic Instrumentation 354
20.2. types of Emission Spectra 355
20.3. Origin of Different Types of Spectra 357
20.4. Spectral Laws 358
20.5. Spectral Analysis Using Emission Spectra 359
20.6. Absorption Spectra of Liquids and Solids 362
20.7. Absorption Spectra of Atoms. Fraunhofer Lines 362
20.8. Investigation of Red-Hot Bodies. Blackbody 363
20.9. Temperature Dependence of Emission of Red-Hot Bodies. Incandescent Lamps 365
20.10. Optical Pyrometry 366
Chapter 21 Effects of Light 368
21.1. Action of Light on a Substance. Photoelectric Effect 368
21.2. Laws of Photoelectric Effect 369
21.3. Light Quanta 372
21.4. Application of Photoelectric Phenomena 374
21.5. Photoluminescence. Stokes’ Shift 376
21.6. Physical Meaning of Stokes’ Shift 378
21.7. Luminescent Analysis 378
21.8. Photochemical Action of Light 379
21.9. The Role of Wavelength in Photochemical Processes 380
21.10. Photography 380
21.11. Photochemical Theory of Vision 384
21.12. Duration of Visual Sensation 386
Part Four Atomic and Nuclear Physics 393
Chapter 22 Atomic Structure 393
22.1. Atoms 393
22.2. Avogadro’s Constant. Size and Mass of Atoms 394
22.3. Elementary Electric Charge 396
22.4. Units of Charge
22.5. Measurement of Mass of Charged Particles. Mass Spectrograph 400
22.6. Electron Mass. Velocity Dependence of Electron Mass 403
22.7. Einstein’s Law 405
22.8. Mass of Atoms. Isotopes 408
22.9. Isotope Separation. Heavy Water 410
22.10. Nuclear Model of Atom 412
22.11. Energy Levels of Atoms 415
22.12. Induced Emission of Light. Quantum Generators 420
22.13. Hydrogen Atom. Peculiarities of Motion of an Electron in an Atom 424
22.14. Many-Electron Atoms. Origin of Optical and X-Ray Spectra of Atoms 428
22.15. Mendeleev’s Periodic System of Elements 429
22.16. Quantum and Wave Properties of Photons 432
22.17. Fundamentals of Quantum (Wave) Mechanics 438
Chapter 23 Radioactivity 446
23.1. Discovery of Radioactivity. Radioactive Elements 446
23.2. Alpha-, Beta- and Gamma- Radiation. Wilson Cloud Chamber
23.3. Methods of Detecting Charged Particles 453
23.4. Properties of Radioactive Radiation 456
23.5. Radioactive Decay and Radioactive Thinsformations 460
23.6. Applications of Radioactivity 464
23.7. Accelerators 464
Chapter 24 Atomic Nuclei and Nuclear Power 470
24.1. Nuclear Reactions 470
24.2. Nuclear Reactions and Transformation of Elements 472
243. Properties of Neutrons 473
24.4. Nuclear Reactions Induced by Neutrons 475
24.5. Artificial Radioactivity 477
24.6. Positron 479
24.7. Application of Einstein’s Law to Annihilation and Pair Formation 481
24.8. The Structure of Atomic Nuclei 482
24.9. Nuclear Energy. Energy Sources of Stars 485
24.10. Uranium Fission. Chain Nuclear Reaction 488
24.11. Application of Nondecaying Chain Fission Reaction. Atom and Hydrogen Bombs 493
24.12. Nuclear Reactors and Their Applications 495
Chapter 25 Elementary Particles 503
25.1. General Remarks 503
25.2. Neutrino 505
25.3. Nuclear Forces. Mesons 507
25.4. Particles and Antiparticles 511
25.5. Particles and Interactions 516
25.6. Detectors of Elementary Particles 518
25.7. Clock Paradox 523
25.8. Cosmic Radiation (Cosmic Rays) 524
Chapter 26 New Achievements in Elementary-Particle Physics 528
26.1. Accelerators and Experimental Technology 528
26.2. Hadrons and Quarks 533
26.3. Quark Structure of Hadrons 542
26.4. Quark Model and Formation and Decay of Hadrons 543
26.5. Leptons. Intermediate Bosons. The Unity of All Interactions 547
Answers and Solutions 551
Part I Oscillations and Waves 551
Part II Geometrical Optics 553
Part III Physical Optics 556
Part IV Atomic and Nuclear Physics 557
Conclusion 562
Index 565
Back Jacket 577
Back Cover 578

 

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