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Physics for the Technician
by L. S. Zhdanov
Translated from the Russian
by Mark Samokhvalov, Cand. Sc.
This physics course is intended for students of technical
junior colleges and gives an adequate coverage of physics at
the high-school level. The aim is to provide a survey of
those basics that are essential for the specialized courses
that a future technician takes at college. The Soviet programme
in physics for technical colleges does not include mechanics because this section of physics is studied in secondary school. But since there are many courses in mechanics, brief and extended, the teacher can always select a book that is best suited for his or her purposes. One book
that we find especially useful is Theoretical Mechanics by
E. M. Nikitin (Mir Publishers, Moscow, 1980).
The physics course that follows starts with a brief introduction
about physical quantities and their measurement,
the International System of Units, and the approximations
that any scientist makes when measuring or calculating a
quantity. It then goes on to the subject of heat and molecular
physics. The other parts deal with electricity and
magnetism, oscillations and waves, optics and special relativity,
and nuclear physics and, finally, there is a brief
survey of astronomical facts. The International System of
Units is used throughout the book. However, since other
systems of units are used in physics, the author has found it
expedient to provide basic information about these, especially
in electricity (Sections 16-9 and 16-10). To this end the book includes an appendix whose first section is devoted to the base and derived units of the SI system.
The author, Leonid Zhdanov, wrote all the parts of the
book except Part 6, which was written by Evghenii Traut.
The author’s son. Grigorii Zhdanov, participated in the preparation
of the book for press.
1 PHYSICAL QUANTITIES AND THEIR MEASUREMENT 18
What is Physics? Physics and Technology. A Quantity and Its
Measurement. Physical Quantities. Direct and Indirect Measure¬
ments. Measurement of Angles in Astronomy. Measuring Dis¬
tances to Celestial Bodies by the Parallax Method. Units
of Time and Their Relation to Earth’s Motion. Units of
Measurement from Formulae. The International System of
Units. Treatment of Data. Combining Errors. Density of Sub¬
Part One – Heat and Molecular Physics
2 THE FUNDAMENTALS OF KINETIC THEORY OF MATTER 36
First Principles of Kinetic Theory. Concept of Temperature. Diffusion. Forces of Molecular Interaction. Kinetic and Potential Energies of Molecules. Concept of Internal Energy. Probability of an Event. The Statistical Method.
3 KINETIC THEORY OF GASES 47
The Gaseous State. Brownian Motion. Measuring Molecular Speeds. Distribution of Molecular Speeds. Mass and Size of Molecules and Atoms. Avogadro and Loschmidt Numbers. Mean Free Path. Gaseous Pressure. Pressure Gauges. Kinetic Calculation of the Pressure. Vacuum.
4 THE IDEAL GAS 61
Properties of Ideal Gas. Change of Gaseous Pressure with Temperature at Constant Volume. Absolute Zero. Thermodynamic Temperature Scale. Relation of Temperature to Kinetic Energy of Gas Molecules.
5 IDEAL-GAS EQUATION OF STATE 68
Thermodynamic Properties. Combined Gas Law. Universal Gas Constant. The Ideal-Gas Law. Dependence of Root-Mean-Square Speed of Gas Molecules on Temperature. Isochoric Process. Isobaric Process. Isothermal Process. Internal Energy of Ideal Gas. Work Performed by Gas.
6 INTERNAL ENERGY 80
Internal Energy and the Surroundings. Heat Exchange. Types of Heat Exchange. Changing Internal Energy by Means of Work. Relation of Internal Energy to State of Matter.
7 QUANTITY OF HEAT 86
The Measurement of Heat. Changing Internal Energy by Heating or Cooling. Heat of Combustion. The Law of Heat Exchange.
8 THE LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY. THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 91
Mechanical Equivalent of Heat. Conservation of Energy in Mechanics. The Law of Conservation of Energy. The First Law of Thermodynamics. Some Applications of the First Law of Thermodynamics. Adiabatic Process. Some Ideas on Stellar Structure.
9 CHANGE OF STATE 101
Vapourization and Condensation. Evaporation. Heat of Vapourization.
10 PROPERTIES OF VAPOUR. BOILING 105
Nonsaturated and Saturated Vapours. Properties of Saturated Vapour. Properties of Nonsaturated Vapour. The Boiling Process. Dependence of Boiling Temperature on External Pressure. Boiling Point. The Law of Heat Exchange for Vapourization and Condensation. Superheated Steam and Its Use in Technology. Critical State of Substance. Liquefaction of Gases.
11 WATER VAPOUR IN THE ATMOSPHERE 118
Humidity. Absolute and Relative Humidities. Measuring Humidity. The Atmosphere of Planets.
12 THE LIQUID STATE 122
What Is a Liquid? The Surface Layer of a Liquid. Surface Tension. Measuring Surface Tension. Wetting. The Shape of Liquid Surfaces. Capillarity. Viscosity. Newton’s Law of Fluid Friction. Amorphous Substances.
13 THE SOLID STATE 137
What Is a Solid? Crystalline Anisotropy. Types of Crystals. Types of Deformation. Stress. Elasticity, Plasticity, Brittleness and Hardness. Hooke’s Law. Energy of a Body Under Elastic Deformation.
14 CHANGE OF STATE—II 151
Fusion and Crystallization. Specific Heat of Fusion. Changes in Volume and Density During Fusion and Solidification. Pressure Dependence of Temperature of Fusion and Heat of Fusion. The Law of Heat Exchange for Fusion and Crystallization. Solutions and Alloys. Sublimation. Phase Diagrams. Triple Point.
15 THERMAL EXPANSION 161
Basic Facts About Thermal Expansion. Linear Expansion. Volume Expansion of Heated Bodies. Thermal Expansion of Solids. Thermal Expansion of Liquids. Thermal Expansion in Nature and Technology.
Part Two – Electricity and Magnetism
16 THE FUNDAMENTALS OF THE ELECTRON THEORY OF ATOMIC STRUCTURE. COULOMB’S LAW 168
Electrification of Bodies. The Concept of an Electric Charge. The Complex Nature of the Atomic Structure. Rutherford’s Experiment and the Nuclear Idea. The Atomic structure of Chemical Elements. Electrification by Contact. Interaction Between Electric Charges. Coulomb’s Law. The Permittivity of a Medium. SI Units in Electricity. Gaussian Units in Electrostatics. The Electroscope.
17 THE ELECTRIC FIELD 179
Electric Field as a Special Form of Matter. The Electric Field Strength. Electric Field and Lines of Force. The Homogeneous Electric Field. Work Done by an Electric Field in Moving a Charge. Electric Potential^and Potential Difference. Relation Between Electric Field Strength and Voltage, a conductor in an Electric Field. The Electrometer. A Dielectric in an Electric Field. Ferroelectrics. The Piezoelectric Effect. Capacitance. Factors That Determine Capacitance. Capacitors. Combinations of Capacitors in Parallel and in Series. The Energy of a Charged Capacitor. Millikan’s Experiment.
18 ELECTRIC CURRENT IN METALS. DIRECT-CURRENT CIRCUITS 210
Charge Carriers and Electric Current. Current and Current Density. The Ammeter, the Voltmeter and the Galvanometer. Closed Electric Circuit. Electromotive Force of a Power Source. External and Internal Sections of a Circuit.* Ohm s Law for a Section of a Circuit Without EMF. Dependence of Resistance on Conductor’s Material, Length and Cross Section. The Temperature Dependence of Resistance. Superconductivity. Equivalent Resistance. Electric Power Consumers in Series. Electric Power Consumers in Parallel. Ohm’s Law for a Complete Circuit. Combinations of Cells. Ohm’s Law in General Form.
19 ELECTRIC POWER, WORK AND HEAT LOSS 232
Electric Current and Work. Power in a Direct Current Circuit. Heating Effects of Current. Relation of Resistance to Heating Effect.
20 THERMOELECTRICITY 237
Thermionic Emission. Contact Potential Difference. Thermo electromotive Force. The Peltier Effect. Application of Thermoelectricity in Science and Technology.
21 ELECTRIC CURRENT IN ELECTROLYTES 243
Electrolytic Dissociation. Electrolysis. Electrolysis Involving Anode Dissolution. Faraday’s First Law. Faraday’s Second Law. Some Applications of Electrolysis.
22 GALVANIC CELLS AND STORAGE BATTERIES 250
Transformation of Chemical Energy Into Electric Energy. Galvanic Cells. Polarization of Galvanic Cells and Its Reduction. Storage Batteries. Galvanic Cells and Storage Batteries in Modern Life.
23 ELECTRIC CURRENT IN GASES AND IN VACUUM 255
Ionization of a Gas. Dependence of Current on Voltage. Electric Discharge Through Gases at Atmospheric Pressure. Electric Discharge Through Gases at Low Pressure. Radiation and Absorption of Energy by an Atom. Cathode Rays. Plasma. Electric Current in Vacuum. The Diode. The Triode. The Cathode-Ray Tube.
24 ELECTRIC CURRENT IN SEMICONDUCTORS 271
Conductors, Dielectrics and Semiconductors. Pure (Intrinsic) Semiconductors. Impurity (Extrinsic) Semiconductors. P-N Junction. The Semiconductor Diode. The Transistor.
25 ELECTROMAGNETISM 282
Interaction of Currents. Magnetic Field as a Special Form of Matter. Magnets. Magnetic Lines of Force. Magnetic Fields in Some Simple Cases. Comparing Magnetic Properties of a Solenoid and a Permanent Magnet s Interaction Between Parallel Currents. The Permeability of a Medium. Definition of the Ampere. A Measure of the Strength of the Magnetic Field. The Homogeneous Magnetic Field. Magnetic Moment of a Current Loop. Work Done in Moving a Current-Carrying Conductor a Magnetic Field. Magnetic Induction}’Due to Currents in Conductors of Different Shape. Magnetic Field Strength. Paramagnetic, Diamagnetic and Ferromagnetic Substances. Magnetization of Ferromagnetic Substances. Construction of an Ammeter and a Voltmeter. The Lorentz Force Equation. Constant arid Variable Magnetic Fields. Magnetic Fields in Solar and Cosmic Phenomena.
26 ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION 310
Flux Linkage and Inductance. Discovery of Induced Current. Induced EMF in a Straight Conductor Moving in a Magnetic Field. Faraday’s Induction Experiments. Lenz’s Law. The Magnitude of Induced EMF. Solenoidal Electric Field and Its Relation to Magnetic Field. Eddy Currents. Self-Induction and Self-Induced EMF. The Energy of a Magnetic Field.
Part Three – Oscillations and Waves
27 MECHANICAL OSCILLATIONS AND WAVES 324
Oscillatory Motion. Conditions for Appearance of Oscillations. Classification of Oscillatory Motion Based on the Forces Acting on the Source. The Parameters of Oscillatory Motion. Quantities Characteristic of the Instantaneous State of an Oscillating Particle. Harmonic Oscillations. The Equation for Harmonic Oscillations and Its Graph. The Simple Pendulum. Laws Governing the Oscillations of a Simple Pendulum. The Compound Pendulum. Practical Uses of Pendulums. Elastic Oscillations. Energy Transformation in Oscillatory Motion. Propagation of “Oscillatory Motion in an Elastic Medium. Energy Transport by Means of a Travelling Wave. Transverse and Longitudinal Waves. Waves and Rays. Wavelength. Velocity of Wave Propagation. Combination of Two Vibrations in Same Line. Reflection of Waves. Standing Waves. Interference of Waves. Mechanical Resonance.
28 SOUND WAVES AND ULTRASONIC WAVES 353
What Is Sound? The Velocity of Sound. Loudness and Intensity of Sound. Pitch and Timbre of Sound. Interference of Sound Waves. Beats. Reflection and Absorption of Sound. Acoustic Resonance. Ultrasound and Its Applications.
29 ALTERNATING-CURRENT CIRCUITS 362
Rotation of a Coil in a Homogeneous Magnetic Field. The Induction Generator. Effective Values of EMF, Voltage and Current. Inductance and Capacitance in an AC Circuit. The Transformer. Induction Coil. Production, Transport and Distribution of Electric Energy.
30 ELECTRICAL OSCILLATIONS AND ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES 374
Transformation of Energy in a Closed Oscillatory Circuit. The Electron Tube Oscillator. High-Frequency Currents. Electromagnetic Field as a Special Form of Matter. Open Oscillatory Circuit. Electromagnetic Waves. Electrical Resonance. The Invention of Radio. Radiotelegraphy. Amplitude Modulation. Radiotelephony. A Simple Vacuum Tube Receiver. Radar. The Cathode-Ray Oscilloscope.
Part Four – Optics and Special Relativity
31 THE NATURE OF LIGHT. PROPAGATION OF LIGHT 394
Historical Survey. The Electromagnetic Theory of Light. The Quantum Theory of Light. Sources of Light. Huygens’ Principle. The Velocity of Light in a Vacuum. The Velocity of Light in a Medium.
32 REFLECTION AND REFRACTION OF LIGHT 401
Optical Phenomena at the Boundary Surface Between Two Media. The Laws of Light Reflection. Diffuse and Regular Reflection. The Plane Mirror. The Laws of Light Refraction. Absolute and Relative Refractive Indices. Total Reflection. Refraction by a Plane Parallel Plate and a Prism.
33 IMAGE FORMATION BY SPHERICAL LENSES AND MIRRORS 414
Lenses. Focal Points and Planes. Lens Power. Image Formation for a Luminous Point Lying on the Principal Axis of a Lens. The Lens Formula. Image Formation for a Luminous Point Lying on a Secondary Axis of a Lens. Image Formation by Spherical Lenses. Lateral Magnification. Spherical Mirrors. Image Formation by Spherical Mirrors.
34 THE EYE AND VISION. OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS 428
Optical Systems. Deficiencies of Optical Systems, Projection Lantern. The Photographic Camera, The Eye as an Optical System. Persistence of Vision, Angle of View# Defects of Vision. Optical Illusions. The Magnifying Glass. The Microscope, Telescopes. Galileo’s Telescope and Binoculars.
35 PHENOMENA ARISING FROM WAVE NATURE OF LIGHT 447
Interference of Light. Colours of Thin Films. Interference in a Wedge-Shaped Film. Newton’s Rings. Interference in Nature and Technology. Diffraction of Light. The Diffraction Grating. Measurement of Wavelength. Polarization of Waves. Polarization of Light. Polarization of Light by Reflection and Refraction.
36 PHOTOMETRY 464
Energy Flux of Radiation. Solid Angle. Luminous Flux. Luminous Intensity. Illuminance. Luminance. The Laws of Lumination. Light Measurements.
37 RADIATION AND SPECTRA. X RAYS 475
Dispersion of Light. Dispersion hy a Prism. Combining Colours. Complementary Colours. The Colour of Objects. Ultraviolet and Infrared Spectra. Ultraviolet and Infrared Radiation in Nature and Technology. Spectroscope and Spectrograph. Types of Spectra. Absorption of Light in Gases and Vapours, Kirchhoff’s Law of Radiation. The Stefan-Boltzmann, Wien and Planck Radiation Laws. Solar and Stellar spectra. Spectroscopic Anal¬ysis. The Doppler Effect. X Rays and Their Practical Uses. The Electromagnetic Spectrum, Types of Cosmic Radiation.
38 PHENOMENA ARISING FROM QUANTUM NATURE OF LIGHT 504
Waveband Quantum Properties of Radiation. The Pressure of Light. The Thermal Effect of Radiation, The Chemical Effect of Radiation. Photography. External Photoelectric Effect. The Laws of External Photoelectric Effect. Einstein’s Photoelectric Equation. Photocells Utilizing the External Photoelectric Effect. Internal Photoelectric Effect. Photoresistors. Photocells Utilizing the Internal Photoelectric Effect. Photocells in Science and Technology. Television. Bohr’s Atom Model. The Quantized Atom. Luminescence. Lasers and Masers.
39 THE FUNDAMENTALS OF SPECIAL RELATIVITY THEORY 536
Relativity in Classical Mechanics. Galilean Transformations, Experimental Foundations of Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity. What Are Simultaneous Events in Special Relativity? Lorentz Transformations. Length and Time Interval in Special Relativity. The Relativistic Velocity-Composition Law. Mass and Energy in Special Relativity. Einstein’s Mass-Energy Formula. Relation Between Momentum and Energy in Special Relativity.
Part Five – Nuclear Physics
40 THE ATOMIC NUCLEUS 564
Methods of Particle Detection. Radioactivity. Transmutation of Elements. Energy and Penetrating Power of Radioactive Radiation. Cherenkov Radiation. Man-Made Transmutations. The Neutron. Nuclear Structure. Nuclear Symbols and Reactions. Isotopes. Nuclear Forces. Nuclear Binding.
41 COSMIC RAYS. ELEMENTARY PARTICLES 585
Cosmic Rays, The Positron. The Neutrino. The Discovery of New Elementary Particles. Classification of the Elementary Particles. Antiparticles. Mutual Transformation of Substance and Field. The Quark Model.
42 NUCLEAR POWER AND ITS UTILIZATION 600
Transuranium Elements. Fission, Chain Reactions. Nuclear Reactors. Production of Power by Nuclear Reactors, Fusion. Controlled Thermonuclear Reaction. Some Applications of Radioisotopes.
Part Six – Astronomy: a Brief Survey
43 THE STRUCTURE AND EVOLUTION OF THE UNIVERSE 618
The Universe. The Origin and Evolution of Celestial Bodies. Cosmology.
NAME INDEX 635
SUBJECT INDEX 636
Thank you so much ….. Sir
Excellent book for engineers in all fields. Gives an overview of the most important technical aspects of physics.