This book on temperature was written to explain how physical concepts arise, how new methods of measuring physical quantities are developed, and how the progress in physics makes well-worn concepts move into modern fields of physics of which our predecessors were understandably quite ignorant. -Ya. Smorodinsky

We now come to the next title in the Science for Everyone Series, *Temperature* written by Ya. A. Smorodinsky.

The books has a lot of historical perspective on how the ideas of thermodynamics developed over the ages. Also the book takes you to many quantum phenomena and discusses in detail about many of them.

From the back cover

This book starts with a historical background on the notion of temperature and the development of the temperature scale. Then Ya. A. Smorodinsky covers the fundamentals of thermodynamics and statistical physics, only using concepts that will be familiar to high-school students. Having built a solid foundation, he exposes the reader to a number of phenomena that are essentially quantum-mechanical, but for which the concept of temperature “works”, and works very well. These include the spins in crystal lattices, inverse population of energy levels, microwave background radiation, black holes, and cooling antiproton beams. Although it has been written for high-school students, the book contains a minimum amount of mathematics. Nevertheless, Ya.A. Smorodinsky compensates for this

severe restriction by the lucid manner in which he discusses complicated effects.

The book was translated from the Russian by V. I. Kisin and was first published by Mir in 1984.

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Updated: 15 January 2019

Contents

Contents

Preface 5

Introduction 9

De recs and Temperature 12

Galileo 17

What Is Heat? 28

Thermal Equilibrium 33

Heat and Cold 35

Temperature Scale 40

Carnot 42

Ideal Carnot Cycle 45

Carnot’s Great Theorem 54

Carnot’s Line of Reasoning 58

A Simple Problem 59

The Law of the Conservation of Energy 61

Adiabats 71

Carnot Function 73

Absolute Temperature Scale 76

Lord Kelvin’s Discovery 80

Real Temperature Scale 82

International Temperature Scale 84

Kinetic Theory o Gases 85

Collisions in an Ideal Gas 87

What Is the Velocity of Molecules? 89

Kinetic Energy of Molecules and Temperature 93

Distribution of Energy over Degrees of Freedom 96

Heat Capacity 99

Maxwell Distribution 101

What Is a Distribution? 103

Various Mean Values 105

Maxwell Distribution and Chaos 107

Absolute Temperature and Quantum Mechanics 114

Magnetic Needles 119

Unattainability of Absolute Zero 122

Entropy 125

Carnot Cycle on T vs S Diagrams 129

Conjugate Quantities . 131

Entropy of an Ideal Gas 132

Real, Irreversible World 134

Price of Work 136

One More Formula for Entropy 139

Two Laws of Thermodynamics 140

Refrigerator 143

Thomson’s Heat Pump 146

Boltzmann’ Formula 148

S as a Function of Temperature 151

Density of States 154

Temperature of Atomic Nuclei 155

Spins in Crystal Lattices 159

Spin Equilibria and Temperature 161

Negative Temperatures 163

Maximum Temperature 167

Masses of Elementary Particles 170

Unexpected Paradox 173

Low Temperatures 174

Magnetic Cooling 177

Problem for Fun 183

A Different Solution 188

Blackbody Radiation 189

Ultraviolet Catastrophe 193

A New Fundamental Constant 195

Photon Gas 201

Blackbody 206

Primordial Background Radiation 207

Baryonic Asymmetry of the Universe 212

Black Holes 217

Black-Hole Paradox 219

Planck’s Units 221

Emission of Radiation from a Black Hole 224

Death of a Black Hole 225

A New Paradox 227

Cooling of Antiproton Beams 229

Temperature and Variance 232

Brownian Movement 233

Fluctuations 237

Maxwell’s Imp 241

Up the Temperature Scale 245

How Is Memory Lost? 249

Lorentz’s Gas 253

Mixing 255

What Is the Number of Degrees of Freedom? 258

Conclusion 260

I need this book as soon as possible..so please let me know how much to pay and within how many days u can deliver the book science for everyone-temperature by Ya.a.smorodinsky

Please read the About page as soon as possible. We do not “deliver” books, neither they are for sale here.

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