Modern Geology (Science for Everyone) – Yasamanov

In this post, we will see the book Modern Geology by N. A. Yasamanov. This is another book in the Science for Everyone Series.

Yasmanov - Modern Geology - Science for Everyone - Mirfc copy

About the Book

The principal advances in geoscience are discussed in this book. Prof. N. Yasamanov tells us about the role that geology plays in human society, about the Earth’s structure, origin and history. He describes the beginnings of life on Earth, the distribution of natural resources over the globe and the problems connected with environmental protection.The book is intended for senior schoolchildren, teachers and all who are interested in Earth sciences; it would also be helpful for students of geological exploration in technical schools.

The geological science is versatile. One book cannot show all of its specifics, are­ search techniques and major advances in all of its areas. We hence merely mention here such principal avenues as mineralogy and petrology, crystallography and petrogra­phy, geochemistry and geophysics, engi­neering geology and hydrogeology. This book will help a school teacher to unfold more openly the essence of one of the fun­damental sciences and will ease the correct and duly professional orientation of a young­ster.

The book was translated from the Russian by V. F. Agranat and was published by Mir in 1990. This might perhaps be one of the last books published by Mir and other Soviet-era publishers.

Many, many thanks to the Russian book lover Angelika for the raw scans of the book.

The Internet Archive Link

Contents

Preface 5 Introduction 9

Geology As the Fundamental Science of the Earth 15

Geology and Humans 15
Geological Processes 19
Geology and Cities 23

The Planet Earth 27

The Shape and Size of the Earth 33
Shells of the Earth 36
The Internal Structure of the Earth 44

The Origin of the Earth and Evolu­tion of Its Interior 52

The Birth of the Earth 52
Gravitational Differentiation 56
The Origin of the Earth’s Crust 60

The Time Scale and History of the Earth 64

The Age of Rocks and Geological Time 64
Geological Time Scale 70
Principal Stages in the Formation of the Earth’s Crust 76

This Variable Face of the Earth 84

Weathering and Soils 86
Surface and Subsurface Waters 90 Glaciers 98
Wind Action 104
Geological Activity of Seas 108

Volcanoes and Earthquakes 111

Present-day Volcanoes 112
Volcanic Activity 118
Causes and Distribution of Earthquakes 123
Earthquake Studies and Prediction 128

A Biography of Life on the Earth 134

Origin of Organisms 134
The Appearance of Skeletal Faunas 138
The Conquest of Land 144
The Time of Dinosaurs and Mammals 147
The Life of Microorganisms 156

History of the Earth’s Climate and Atmosphere 164

Origin of the Atmosphere 165
Climatic Variations in the Geological Past 168
Climate and the Evolution of Organisms 174
Climate in the Future 179

Marine Geology 182

Origin and Evolution of Waters of the World Ocean 183
Why Is the Sea Salty? 186
The Structure and Geology of the Ocean Floor 191
Marine Research Laboratories 201

Motions of Continents 21

A. Wegener’s Hypothesis 211
Paleomagnetism and Neomobilism 216
The Tectonics of the Lithospheric Plates 220
The Mechanism of Motion of Lithospheric Plates 224
Global Reconstructions 227
Geosynclines as Folded Mountain Systems 236
The History of the Mediterranean Sea 241

Earth’s Natural Resources and En­vironmental Protection 246

Energy Resources 247

Mineral Resources 251

On the Protection of the Earth’s Interior and the Environment 259

Conclusions 275
Index 278

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