In this post, we will see *Elementary Textbook on Physics – Volume 2 – Electricity And Magnetism* edited by G. S. Landsberg.

## About the book:

Volume 2 covers aspects of basic aspects of electricity and magnetism. These topics include:

Electric Charges. Electric Field. Direct Current. Thermal Effect of Current. Electric Current in Electrolytes. Chemical and Thermal Generators. Electric Current in Metals. Electric Current in Gases. Electric Current in Semiconductors. Basic Magnetic Phenomena. Magnetic Field. Magnetic Field of Current. Magnetic Field of the Earth. Forces Acting on Current- Carrying Conductors in Magnetic Field. Electromagnetic Induction. Magnetic Properties of Bodies. Alternating Current. Electric Machines: Generators, Motors and Electromagnets.

## About the series (from Front Jacket and Preface):

Elementary Textbook on Physics first appeared in 1948-52 under the editorship of Academician G.S. Landsberg (1890-1957) and immediately became popular with students preparing for entrance examinations in physics. The success of the book was due very much to the fact that each section was written by a specialist. Contributors to the book included the scientists S.E. Khaikin, M.A. Isakovich, M.A. Leontovich, D.I. Sakharov (Vol. 1), S.G. Kalashnikov (Vol. 2), S.M. Rytov, M.M. Sushchinskii (with the participation of I.A. Yakovlev), F.S. Landsberg-Baryshanskaya, and F.L. Shapiro (Vol. 3).

These three volumes form a course on elementary physics that has become very popular in the Soviet Union. Each sectioh was written by an authority in the appropriate field, while the overall unity and editing was supervised by Academician G.S. Landsberg (1890-1957). This textbook has gone through ten Russian editions and a great deal of effort went into the last edition to introduce SI units and change the terminology and notation for the physical units.

A feature of this course is the relatively small number of formulas and mathematical manipulations. Instead, attention was focussed on explaining physical phenomena in such a way as to combine scientific rigour and a form understandable to school children. Another aspect of the text is the technological application of the physical laws.

These features make the text a world-class textbook.

For students preparing to enter universities and colleges to study physics, and for those it high schools specialising in physics.

The book was translated from the Russian by *Natalia Wadhwa* and was first published by Mir in 1988.

The Internet Archive Link Vol 1

The Internet Archive Link Vol 2

The Internet Archive Link Vol 3

## Contents Vol 2

Front Cover 1

Front Jacket 2

Title Page 8

Contents 10

From the Preface to the First Russian Edition 15

Chapter 1 Electric Charges 16

1.1. Electric Interaction 16

1.2. Conductors and Insulators 18

1.3. Division of Bodies into Conductors and Insulators 20

1.4. Positive and Negative Charges 22

1.5. What Happens During Electrostatic Charging? 24

1.6. Electron Theory 26

1.7. Electrostatic Charging by Friction 27

1.8. Charging by Induction 30

1.10. Coulomb’s Law 34

1.11. Unit of Charge 36

Chapter 2 Electric Field 39

2.1. Effect of Electric Charge on Surrounding Bodies 39

2.2. The Idea of Electric Field 40

2.3. Electric Field Strength 42

2.4. Composition of Fields 44

2.5. Electric Field in Insulators and Conductors 45

2.6. Graphic Representation of Fields 46

2.7. Main Features of Electric Field-Strength Patterns 50

2.8. Application of the Method of Field Lines to Problems in Electrostatics 50

2.9. Work Done in Displacing an Electric Charge in an Electric Field 53

2.10. Potential Difference (Electric Voltage) 56

2.11. Equipotential Surfaces 58

2.12. Why Was the Potential Difference Introduced? 60

2.13. Conditions for Charge Equilibrium in Conductors 62

2.14. Electrometer 63

2.15. What Is the Difference Between an Electrometer and an Electroscope? 66

2.16. Earthing 67

2.17. Measurement of the Potential Difference in Air. Electric Probe 68

2.18. Electric Field of the Earth 70

2.19. Simple Electric Field Configurations 71

2.20. Charge Distribution in a Conductor. Faraday’s Cage 73

2.21. Surface Charge Density 77

2.22. Capacitors 78

2.23. Types of Capacitors 82

2.24. Parallel and Series Connection of Capacitors 85

2.25. Dielectric Permittivity 86

2.26. Why Is Electric Field Weakened in a Dielectric? Polarization of Dielectrics 90

2.27. Energy of Charged Bodies. Energy of Electric Field 92

Chapter 3 Direct Current 95

3.1. Electric Current and Electromotive Force 95

3.2. Manifestations of Electric Current 100

3.3. Direction of Current 103

3.4. Strength of Current 104

3.5. “Velocity of Electric Current” and Velocity of Charge Carriers 105

3.6. Galvanometer 106

3.7. Voltage Distribution in a Current-Carrying Conductor 107

3.8. Ohm’s Law 109

3.9 Resistance of Wires 111

3.10. Temperature Dependence of Resistance 114

3.11. Superconductivity 116

3.12. Series and Parallel Connection of Wires 118

3.13. Rheostats 121

3.14. Voltage Distribution in a Circuit. “Losses” in Wires 122

3.15. Voltmeter 124

3.16. What Must Be the Resistances of a Voltmeter and an Ammeter? 125

3.17. Shunting of Measuring Instruments 126

Chapter 4 Thermal Effect of Current 128

4.1. Heating by Current. Joule’s Law 128

4.2. Work Done by Electric Current 129

4.3. Power of a Current 130

4.4. Resistance Welding 132

4.5. Electric Heating Appliances. Electric Furnaces 132

4.6. Design of Heating Appliances 134

4.7. Incandescent Lamps 135

4.8. Short-Circuiting. Fuses 137

4.9. Electric Wiring 139

Chapter 5 Electric Current in Electrolytes 141

5.1. Faraday’s First Law of Electrolysis 141

5.2. Faraday’s Second Law of Electrolysis 143

5.3. Ionic Conduction in Electrolytes 145

5.4. Motion o f Ions in Electrolytes 147

5.5. Elementary Electric Charge 148

5.6. Primary and Secondary Processes in Electrolysis 149

5.7. Electrolytic Dissociation 151

5.8. Graduating Ammeters with the Help of Electrolysis 152

5.9. Technical Applications of Electrolysis 153

Chapter 6 Chemical and Thermal Generators 157

6.1. Introduction. Volta’s Discovery 157

6.2. Volta’s Rule. Galvanic Cell 158

6.3. Emergence of EMF and Current in a Galvanic Cell 161

6.4. Polarization of Electrodes 166

6.5. Depolarization in Galvanic Cells 168

6.6. Accumulators 169

6.7. Ohm’s Law for Closed Circuits 172

6.8. Voltage Across the Terminals of a Current Source and EMF 174

6.9. Connection of Current Sources 177

6.10. Thermocouples 181

6.11. Thermocouples as Generators 183

6.12. Measurement of Temperature with the Help of Thermocouples 184

Chapter 7 Electric Current in Metals 188

7.1. Electron Conduction in Metals 188

7.2. Structure of Metals 191

7.3. Reasons Behind Electric Resistance 192

7.4. Work Function 193

7.5. Emission of Electrons by Incandescent Bodies 194

Chapter 8 Electric Current in Gases 197

8.1. Intrinsic and Induced Conduction in Gases 197

8.2. Induced Conduction in a Gas 197

8.3. Spark Discharge 201

8.4. Lightning 204

8.5. Corona Discharge 205

8.6. Applications of Corona Discharge 206

8.7. Lightning Conductor 208

8.8. Electric Arc 209

8.9. Applications of Arc Discharge 212

8.10. Glow Discharge 213

8.11. What Occurs During a Glow Discharge? 214

8.12. Cathode Rays 215

8.13. Nature of Cathode Rays 217

8.14. Canal (Positive) Rays 222

8.15. Electron Conduction in a High Vacuum 223

8.16. Electron Tubes 224

8.17. Cathode-Ray Tube 228

Chapter 9 Electric Current in Semiconductors 231

9.1. Nature of Electric Current in Semiconductors 231

9.2. Motion of Electrons in Semiconductors

9.3. Semiconductor Rectifiers 238

9.4. Semiconductor Photocells 243

Chapter 10 Basic Magnetic Phenomena 244

10.1. Natural and Artificial Magnets 244

10.2. Poles of a Magnet and Its Neutral Zone 246

10.3. Magnetic Effect of Electric Current 249

10.4. Magnetic Effects of Currents and Permanent Magnets 251

10.5. Origin of the Magnetic Field of Permanent Magnets. Coulomb’s Experiment 257

10.6. Ampere’s Hypothesis on Elementary Currents 260

Chapter 11 Magnetic Field 262

11.1. Magnetic Field and Its Manifestations. Magnetic Induction 262

11.2. Magnetic Moment. Unit of Magnetic Induction 264

11.3. Measurement of Magnetic Induction with the Help of Magnetic Needle 265

11.4. Composition of Magnetic Fields 266

11.5. Magnetic Field Lines 267

11.6. Instruments for Measuring Magnetic Induction 269

Chapter 12 Magnetic Field of Current 271

12.1.Magnetic Field of a Straight Conductor and of a Circular Current Loop. Right-Hand Screw Rule 271

12.2. Magnetic Field of a Solenoid. Equivalence of a Solenoid and a Bar Magnet 274

12.3. Magnetic Field in a Solenoid. Magnetic Field Strength 277

12.4. Magnetic Field of Moving Charges 279

Chapter 13 Magnetic Field of the Earth 281

13.1. Magnetic Field of the Earth 281

13.2. Dements of the Earth’s Magnetism 283

13.3. Magnetic Anomalies and Magnetometric Prospecting of Mineral Resources 286

13.4. Time Variation of Elements of the Earth’s Magnetic Field. Magnetic Storms 287

Chapter 14 Forces Acting on Current-Carrying Conductors in a Magnetic Field 288

14.1. Introduction 288

14.2. Effect of a Magnetic Field on a Straight Current-Carrying Conductor. Left-Hand Rule 288

14.3. Effect of a Magnetic Field on a Current Loop or on a Solenoid 293

14.4. Galvanometer Based on Interaction of Magnetic Field and Current 298

14.5. Lorentz Force 300

14.6. Lorentz Force and Aurora Borealis 304

Chapter 15 Electromagnetic Induction 307

15.1. Conditions for Emergence of Induced Current 307

15.2. Direction of Induced Current. Lenz’s Law 313

15.3. Basic Law of Electromagnetic Induction 317

15.4. Induced EMF 319

15.5. Electromagnetic Induction and Lorentz Force 322

15.6. Induced Currents in Bulky Conductors. Foucault Currents 323

Chapter 16 Magnetic Properties of Bodies 327

16.1. Magnetic Permeability of Iron 327

16.2. Permeability of Different Materials. Paramagnetics and Diamagnetics 331

16.3. Motion of Paramagnetics and Diamagnetics in a Magnetic Field. Faraday’s Experiments 333

16.4. Molecular Theory of Magnetism 335

16.5. Magnetic Protection 336

16.6. Properties of Ferromagnetics 338

16.7. Fundamentals of the Theory of Ferromagnetism 343

Chapter 17 Alternating Current 346

17.1. Constant and Alternating Electromotive Force 346

17.2. Experimental Investigation of the Form of an Alternating Current. Oscillograph 350

17.3. Amplitude

17.4. Strength of Alternating Current 356

17.5. A.C. Ammeters and Voltmeters 357

17.6. Self-Induction 358

17.7. Inductance of a Coil 361

17.8. Alternating Current Through a Capacitor and a Large- Inductance Coil 362

17.9. Ohm’s Law for Alternating Current. Capacitive and Inductive Reactances 365

17.10. Summation of Currents for Parallel Connection of Elements in an A. C. Circuit 367

17.11. Summation of Voltages in Series Connection of Elements of an A.C. Circuit 371

7.12. Phase Shift Between Current and Voltage 372

17.13. Power of Alternating Current 377

17.14. Transformers 378

17.15. Centralized Production and Distribution of Electric Power 384

17.16. Rectification of Alternating Current 386

Chapter 18 Electric Machines: Generators

18.1. A.C. Generators 391

18.3. Separately Excited and Self-Excited Generators 403

18.4. Three-Phase Current 407

18.5. Three-Phase Electric Motor 412

18.6. D.C. Motors 420

18.7. Basic Operating Characteristics and Features of D.C. Motors with Shunt and Series Excitation 423

18.8. Efficiency of Generators and Motors 429

18.9. Reversibility of D. C. Generators 429

18.10. Electromagnets 431

18.11. Application of Electromagnets 433

18.12. Relays and Their Application in Engineering and Automatic Control 435

18.2. D.C. Generators 395

Answers and Solutions 437

Appendices 447

1. Fundamental Physical Constants 447

2. Factors and Prefixes Used with the SI Units 447

Index 448

Back Jacket 457

Back Cover 458

Electricity And Magnetism

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