Elementary Textbook on Physics Vol 2 – Landsberg

In this post, we will see Elementary Textbook on Physics – Volume 2 – Electricity And Magnetism edited by G. S. Landsberg.

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About the book:

Volume 2 covers aspects of basic aspects of electricity and magnetism. These topics include:

Electric Charges. Electric Field. Direct Current. Thermal Effect of Current. Electric Current in Electrolytes. Chemical and Thermal Generators. Electric Current in Metals. Electric Current in Gases. Electric Current in Semiconductors. Basic Magnetic Phenomena. Magnetic Field. Magnetic Field of Current. Magnetic Field of the Earth. Forces Acting on Current- Carrying Conductors in Magnetic Field. Electromagnetic Induction. Magnetic Properties of Bodies. Alternating Current. Electric Machines: Generators, Motors and Electromagnets.

 

About the series (from Front Jacket and Preface):

Elementary Textbook on Physics first appeared in 1948-52 under the editorship of Academician G.S. Landsberg (1890-1957) and immediately became popular with students preparing for entrance examinations in physics. The success of the book was due very much to the fact that each section was written by a specialist. Contributors to the book included the scientists S.E. Khaikin, M.A. Isakovich, M.A. Leontovich, D.I. Sakharov (Vol. 1), S.G. Kalashnikov (Vol. 2), S.M. Rytov, M.M. Sushchinskii (with the participation of I.A. Yakovlev), F.S. Landsberg-Baryshanskaya, and F.L. Shapiro (Vol. 3).

These three volumes form a course on elementary physics that has become very popular in the Soviet Union. Each sectioh was written by an authority in the appropriate field, while the overall unity and editing was supervised by Academician G.S. Landsberg (1890-1957). This textbook has gone through ten Russian editions and a great deal of effort went into the last edition to introduce SI units and change the terminology and notation for the physical units.

A feature of this course is the relatively small number of formulas and mathematical manipulations. Instead, attention was focussed on explaining physical phenomena in such a way as to combine scientific rigour and a form understandable to school children. Another aspect of the text is the technological application of the physical laws.

These features make the text a world-class textbook.

For students preparing to enter universities and colleges to study physics, and for those it high schools specialising in physics.

The book was translated from the Russian by Natalia Wadhwa and was first published by Mir in 1988.

 

The Internet Archive Link Vol 1

The Internet Archive Link Vol 2

The Internet Archive Link Vol 3

Contents Vol 2

Front Cover 1
Front Jacket 2
Title Page 8
Contents 10
From the Preface to the First Russian Edition 15
Chapter 1 Electric Charges 16
1.1. Electric Interaction 16
1.2. Conductors and Insulators 18
1.3. Division of Bodies into Conductors and Insulators 20
1.4. Positive and Negative Charges 22
1.5. What Happens During Electrostatic Charging? 24
1.6. Electron Theory 26
1.7. Electrostatic Charging by Friction 27
1.8. Charging by Induction 30
1.10. Coulomb’s Law 34
1.11. Unit of Charge 36
Chapter 2 Electric Field 39
2.1. Effect of Electric Charge on Surrounding Bodies 39
2.2. The Idea of Electric Field 40
2.3. Electric Field Strength 42
2.4. Composition of Fields 44
2.5. Electric Field in Insulators and Conductors 45
2.6. Graphic Representation of Fields 46
2.7. Main Features of Electric Field-Strength Patterns 50
2.8. Application of the Method of Field Lines to Problems in Electrostatics 50
2.9. Work Done in Displacing an Electric Charge in an Electric Field 53
2.10. Potential Difference (Electric Voltage) 56
2.11. Equipotential Surfaces 58
2.12. Why Was the Potential Difference Introduced? 60
2.13. Conditions for Charge Equilibrium in Conductors 62
2.14. Electrometer 63
2.15. What Is the Difference Between an Electrometer and an Electroscope? 66
2.16. Earthing 67
2.17. Measurement of the Potential Difference in Air. Electric Probe 68
2.18. Electric Field of the Earth 70
2.19. Simple Electric Field Configurations 71
2.20. Charge Distribution in a Conductor. Faraday’s Cage 73
2.21. Surface Charge Density 77
2.22. Capacitors 78
2.23. Types of Capacitors 82
2.24. Parallel and Series Connection of Capacitors 85
2.25. Dielectric Permittivity 86
2.26. Why Is Electric Field Weakened in a Dielectric? Polarization of Dielectrics 90
2.27. Energy of Charged Bodies. Energy of Electric Field 92
Chapter 3 Direct Current 95
3.1. Electric Current and Electromotive Force 95
3.2. Manifestations of Electric Current 100
3.3. Direction of Current 103
3.4. Strength of Current 104
3.5. “Velocity of Electric Current” and Velocity of Charge Carriers 105
3.6. Galvanometer 106
3.7. Voltage Distribution in a Current-Carrying Conductor 107
3.8. Ohm’s Law 109
3.9 Resistance of Wires 111
3.10. Temperature Dependence of Resistance 114
3.11. Superconductivity 116
3.12. Series and Parallel Connection of Wires 118
3.13. Rheostats 121
3.14. Voltage Distribution in a Circuit. “Losses” in Wires 122
3.15. Voltmeter 124
3.16. What Must Be the Resistances of a Voltmeter and an Ammeter? 125
3.17. Shunting of Measuring Instruments 126
Chapter 4 Thermal Effect of Current 128
4.1. Heating by Current. Joule’s Law 128
4.2. Work Done by Electric Current 129
4.3. Power of a Current 130
4.4. Resistance Welding 132
4.5. Electric Heating Appliances. Electric Furnaces 132
4.6. Design of Heating Appliances 134
4.7. Incandescent Lamps 135
4.8. Short-Circuiting. Fuses 137
4.9. Electric Wiring 139
Chapter 5 Electric Current in Electrolytes 141
5.1. Faraday’s First Law of Electrolysis 141
5.2. Faraday’s Second Law of Electrolysis 143
5.3. Ionic Conduction in Electrolytes 145
5.4. Motion o f Ions in Electrolytes 147
5.5. Elementary Electric Charge 148
5.6. Primary and Secondary Processes in Electrolysis 149
5.7. Electrolytic Dissociation 151
5.8. Graduating Ammeters with the Help of Electrolysis 152
5.9. Technical Applications of Electrolysis 153
Chapter 6 Chemical and Thermal Generators 157
6.1. Introduction. Volta’s Discovery 157
6.2. Volta’s Rule. Galvanic Cell 158
6.3. Emergence of EMF and Current in a Galvanic Cell 161
6.4. Polarization of Electrodes 166
6.5. Depolarization in Galvanic Cells 168
6.6. Accumulators 169
6.7. Ohm’s Law for Closed Circuits 172
6.8. Voltage Across the Terminals of a Current Source and EMF 174
6.9. Connection of Current Sources 177
6.10. Thermocouples 181
6.11. Thermocouples as Generators 183
6.12. Measurement of Temperature with the Help of Thermocouples 184
Chapter 7 Electric Current in Metals 188
7.1. Electron Conduction in Metals 188
7.2. Structure of Metals 191
7.3. Reasons Behind Electric Resistance 192
7.4. Work Function 193
7.5. Emission of Electrons by Incandescent Bodies 194
Chapter 8 Electric Current in Gases 197
8.1. Intrinsic and Induced Conduction in Gases 197
8.2. Induced Conduction in a Gas 197
8.3. Spark Discharge 201
8.4. Lightning 204
8.5. Corona Discharge 205
8.6. Applications of Corona Discharge 206
8.7. Lightning Conductor 208
8.8. Electric Arc 209
8.9. Applications of Arc Discharge 212
8.10. Glow Discharge 213
8.11. What Occurs During a Glow Discharge? 214
8.12. Cathode Rays 215
8.13. Nature of Cathode Rays 217
8.14. Canal (Positive) Rays 222
8.15. Electron Conduction in a High Vacuum 223
8.16. Electron Tubes 224
8.17. Cathode-Ray Tube 228
Chapter 9 Electric Current in Semiconductors 231
9.1. Nature of Electric Current in Semiconductors 231
9.2. Motion of Electrons in Semiconductors
9.3. Semiconductor Rectifiers 238
9.4. Semiconductor Photocells 243
Chapter 10 Basic Magnetic Phenomena 244
10.1. Natural and Artificial Magnets 244
10.2. Poles of a Magnet and Its Neutral Zone 246
10.3. Magnetic Effect of Electric Current 249
10.4. Magnetic Effects of Currents and Permanent Magnets 251
10.5. Origin of the Magnetic Field of Permanent Magnets. Coulomb’s Experiment 257
10.6. Ampere’s Hypothesis on Elementary Currents 260
Chapter 11 Magnetic Field 262
11.1. Magnetic Field and Its Manifestations. Magnetic Induction 262
11.2. Magnetic Moment. Unit of Magnetic Induction 264
11.3. Measurement of Magnetic Induction with the Help of Magnetic Needle 265
11.4. Composition of Magnetic Fields 266
11.5. Magnetic Field Lines 267
11.6. Instruments for Measuring Magnetic Induction 269
Chapter 12 Magnetic Field of Current 271
12.1.Magnetic Field of a Straight Conductor and of a Circular Current Loop. Right-Hand Screw Rule 271
12.2. Magnetic Field of a Solenoid. Equivalence of a Solenoid and a Bar Magnet 274
12.3. Magnetic Field in a Solenoid. Magnetic Field Strength 277
12.4. Magnetic Field of Moving Charges 279
Chapter 13 Magnetic Field of the Earth 281
13.1. Magnetic Field of the Earth 281
13.2. Dements of the Earth’s Magnetism 283
13.3. Magnetic Anomalies and Magnetometric Prospecting of Mineral Resources 286
13.4. Time Variation of Elements of the Earth’s Magnetic Field. Magnetic Storms 287
Chapter 14 Forces Acting on Current-Carrying Conductors in a Magnetic Field 288
14.1. Introduction 288
14.2. Effect of a Magnetic Field on a Straight Current-Carrying Conductor. Left-Hand Rule 288
14.3. Effect of a Magnetic Field on a Current Loop or on a Solenoid 293
14.4. Galvanometer Based on Interaction of Magnetic Field and Current 298
14.5. Lorentz Force 300
14.6. Lorentz Force and Aurora Borealis 304
Chapter 15 Electromagnetic Induction 307
15.1. Conditions for Emergence of Induced Current 307
15.2. Direction of Induced Current. Lenz’s Law 313
15.3. Basic Law of Electromagnetic Induction 317
15.4. Induced EMF 319
15.5. Electromagnetic Induction and Lorentz Force 322
15.6. Induced Currents in Bulky Conductors. Foucault Currents 323
Chapter 16 Magnetic Properties of Bodies 327
16.1. Magnetic Permeability of Iron 327
16.2. Permeability of Different Materials. Paramagnetics and Diamagnetics 331
16.3. Motion of Paramagnetics and Diamagnetics in a Magnetic Field. Faraday’s Experiments 333
16.4. Molecular Theory of Magnetism 335
16.5. Magnetic Protection 336
16.6. Properties of Ferromagnetics 338
16.7. Fundamentals of the Theory of Ferromagnetism 343
Chapter 17 Alternating Current 346
17.1. Constant and Alternating Electromotive Force 346
17.2. Experimental Investigation of the Form of an Alternating Current. Oscillograph 350
17.3. Amplitude
17.4. Strength of Alternating Current 356
17.5. A.C. Ammeters and Voltmeters 357
17.6. Self-Induction 358
17.7. Inductance of a Coil 361
17.8. Alternating Current Through a Capacitor and a Large- Inductance Coil 362
17.9. Ohm’s Law for Alternating Current. Capacitive and Inductive Reactances 365
17.10. Summation of Currents for Parallel Connection of Elements in an A. C. Circuit 367
17.11. Summation of Voltages in Series Connection of Elements of an A.C. Circuit 371
7.12. Phase Shift Between Current and Voltage 372
17.13. Power of Alternating Current 377
17.14. Transformers 378
17.15. Centralized Production and Distribution of Electric Power 384
17.16. Rectification of Alternating Current 386
Chapter 18 Electric Machines: Generators
18.1. A.C. Generators 391
18.3. Separately Excited and Self-Excited Generators 403
18.4. Three-Phase Current 407
18.5. Three-Phase Electric Motor 412
18.6. D.C. Motors 420
18.7. Basic Operating Characteristics and Features of D.C. Motors with Shunt and Series Excitation 423
18.8. Efficiency of Generators and Motors 429
18.9. Reversibility of D. C. Generators 429
18.10. Electromagnets 431
18.11. Application of Electromagnets 433
18.12. Relays and Their Application in Engineering and Automatic Control 435
18.2. D.C. Generators 395
Answers and Solutions 437
Appendices 447
1. Fundamental Physical Constants 447
2. Factors and Prefixes Used with the SI Units 447
Index 448
Back Jacket 457
Back Cover 458
Electricity And Magnetism

 

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