In this post, we will see the book Radio Emission Of The Sun and Planets by V. V. Zheleznyakov.
About the book
The task of present-day radio astronomy is to study extraterrestrial objects by means of the nature of the radio emission coming from them. Radio astronomy research is valuable for the significance of the results which greatly supplement the data of optical astronomy. It has also become a basic source of information on regions which, whilst they play a part in the generation, reflection or scattering of radio waves, make no significant contribution to the optical part of the spectrum.This book presents a detailed discussion and analysis of the radio emission of the Sun, the Moon and the planets, and is an attempt to fill a gap in the literature currently available. There is much contemporary interest in the observation and interpretation of the radio emissions from these bodies, and this work will be of considerable value both to radio and optical astronomers, and also to the theoretical physicists who seek greater understanding of the results obtained by the users of radio telescopes. There is an extensive bibliography which adds to the importance of this book as a work of reference.
The book was translated from Russian by H.S.H. Massey and was edited by J.S. Hey. The book was published in 1970.
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FOREWORD TO THE ENGLISH EDITION xiii
CHAPTER I. PHYSICAL CONDITIONS OF THE SUN, MOON AND PLANETS 1
1. The Sun’s Atmosphere 1
The chromosphere (2).
The corona (3)
2. Solar Activity 8
Plages and flocculi (8).
Coronal condensations (14)
3. The Moon and Planets 15
Mercury, Venus and Mars (15).
Jupiter and Saturn (17).
The Moon (18)
CHAPTER II. BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF EXTRATERRESTRIAL RADIO
EMISSION AND METHODS FOR STUDYING THEM 20
4. Frequency Spectrum 21
Aerial temperature and effective temperature of radio emission (23).
Studying the radio-emission frequency spectrum. Multi-channel receiving devices and radio spectrographs (27)
5. Angular Spectrum 30
Aerial system requirements in radio astronomy. Parabolic aerials (30).
The two-element interferometer (31).
Modifications of the two-element interferometer (33).
The problem of studying the radio brightness distribution over a source. Variable-baseline interferometer (36).
The multiple-element interferometer (39).
The Mills Cross (42).
Eclipse observations (44)
6. Polarization of Radio Emission 46
Polarization parameters (46).
Methods of polarization measurements in the metric waveband (51).
Polarization measurements in the centimetric band (59)
7. Effect of the Earth’s Atmosphere on the Observed Radio 63
Emission Absorption of radio waves in the troposphere (63). Absorption of radio waves in the ionosphere (64). Effects connected with refraction of radio waves in the atmosphere (65).
change of the radio emission as it passes through the ionosphere (68)
CHAPTER III. RESULTS FROM OBSERVATIONS OF THE RADIO EMISSION OF THE “QUIET” SUN 73
8. Frequency Spectrum of the “Quiet” Sun’s Radio Emission 74
Determining the level of the “quiet” Sun’s radio emission (74).
Observed dependence of Tes on wavelength (77)
9. Distribution of Radio Brightness over the Sun’s Disk 83
Remarks on methods of investigation. Some preliminary data (83).
Features of the T. distribution over the disk of the “quiet” Sun in the radio-frequency band (86)
CHAPTER IV. RESULTS OF OBSERVATIONS OF THE SUN’S SPORADIC RADIO EMISSION 99
10. The Slowly Varying Component 101
General characteristics. Correlation of the radio-emission flux with sunspots (101).
Position, form and size of local sources (102).
Radio-emission frequency spectrum (110).
Directional properties and polarization (113).
Altitude of local sources above the photosphere. Connection with optical features of the solar corona (116)
11. Microwave Bursts 120
General characteristics. Basic types of microwave bursts (120).
Frequency spectrum of bursts (125).
Polarization of radio emission (128).
Microwave bursts and chromospheric flares (130)
12. Noise Storms (enhanced radio emission and type I bursts) 135
Time characteristics of noise storms (136).
Frequency spectrum (137).
Connection with optical features (139).
Directional features of the radio emission (143).
Size and position of radio-emission sources in the corona (144).
Polarization of noise storms (148)
13. Type II Bursts 154
General characteristics (154).
Harmonics of type II bursts (157).
Fine structure of type II bursts (165).
Frequency drift and its interpretation (167)
14. Type III Bursts 176
General characteristics (176).
Polarization of bursts (180).
Connection with optical phenomena (181).
Position and movement of an emitting region in the corona. Frequency drift of bursts (185).
15. Types IV and V Radio Emission 194
Basic characteristics of type IV radio emission (194).
Type V bursts (201)
16. Other Forms of Burst 202
Decimetric continuum (202).
Rapidly drifting decimetric bursts (205).
Continuum storms (208).
The event of 4 November 1957 (210).
Wide-band bursts of short duration (212).
Reverse-drift pairs (212)
17. Sporadic Radio Emission and Geophysical Phenomena 215
Preliminary remarks (215).
Radio emission of the Sun and sudden ionospheric disturbances. Connection between microwave bursts and hard solar radiation (217).
Solar radio emission and magnetic storms with a sudden beginning. Properties of geoeffective corpuscular streams (223).
Radio emission of the Sun and polar blackouts. Connection between continuum-type radio emission and the appearance of energetic particles (230).
General picture of the Sun’s sporadic radio emission (237)
CHAPTER V. RESULTS OF OBSERVATIONS OF RADIO EMISSION OF THE PLANETS AND THE MOON 244
18. First Investigations into the Radio Emission of the Moon,
Planets and Comets 244
First study of the Moon and planets in the radio-frequency band (244).
Radio emission of comets (249)
19. Sporadic Radio Emission of Jupiter 250
Radio emission flux and its time dependence (250).
Frequency spectrum (253).
Local sources of sporadic radio emission, their period of rotation and position on Jupiter’s disk (258).
Directional features of radio emission and size of local sources (264).
Connection with solar activity (266)
20. Continuous Radio Emission of the Planets 269
Radio emission of Saturn (269).
Radio emission of Jupiter (270).
Radio emission of Mars (277).
Radio emission of Venus (277).
Radio emission of Mercury (283)
21. Radio Emission of the Moon 283
Preliminary remarks (283).
Frequency spectrum and phase dependence of the Moon’s radio emission (285).
Radio brightness distribution over the lunar disk (292)
CHAPTER VI. PROPAGATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES IN THE SOLAR CORONA 297
22. Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves in an Isotropic Coronal
Plasma (approximation of geometrical optics) 298
Quasi-hydrodynamic method and approximation of geometrical optics (298).
Waves in an isotropic plasma (305)
23. Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves in a Magnetoactive
Coronal Plasma (approximation of geometrical optics) 318
Electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous plasma in the presence of a constant magnetic field (318).
Waves in a non-uniform magnetoactive plasma (325).
Faraday effect in the solar corona (329).
Depolarizing factors and the question of elliptical polarization of certain bursts of solar radio emission (334)
24. Coupling of Electromagnetic Waves in a Plasma and Polarization of Solar Radio Emission 342
Limiting polarization of emission leaving the coronal plasma (344).
Preliminary remarks on the effect of the coupling of waves in the region of a quasi-transverse magnetic field (350).
Calculations of coupling by the phase integral method (353).
Certain features of solar radio emission polarization and their interpretation on the basis of wave coupling in the region of a quasi-transverse magnetic field in the corona (365)
25. Coupling of Electromagnetic Waves and the Problem of the
Escape of Radio Emission from the Corona 373
Preliminary remarks (373).
Conversion of plasma waves into electromagnetic waves in a smoothly non-uniform isotropic plasma (376).
Wave coupling in a smoothly non-uniform magnetoactive plasma (385). Conversion of plasma waves into electromagnetic waves because of scattering on electron density fluctuations (391)
CHAPTER VII. GENERATION AND ABSORPTION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES IN THE SOLAR CORONA 408
26. Emission and Absorption of Electromagnetic Waves in an Equilibrium Plasma 408
Emission transfer equation (408).
Electromagnetic wave emission by individual particles (413). Absorption of electromagnetic waves in an isotropic plasma (430). Absorption of electromagnetic waves in a magnetoactive plasma (440). Gyro-resonance absorption in the solar corona (452)
27. Emission, Absorption and Amplification of Electromagnetic Waves in a Non-equilibrium Plasma 459
The kinetic equation method and the Einstein coefficients method. The problem of wave amplification and instability in a plasma (459)
Reabsorption and amplification of plasma waves in a non-equilibrium plasma with H, = 0 (quantum treatment) (471)
Amplification and instability of plasma waves in a non-equilibrium plasma with H, = 0 (classical treatment) (478)
Maximum amplitude and harmonics of amplified plasma waves (482)
Reabsorption and amplification of electromagnetic waves in a non-equilibrium magnetoactive plasma (487)
The appearance of plasma waves in shock wave fronts (501)
CHAPTER VIII. THEORY OF THE SUN’S THERMAL RADIO EMISSION 508
28. Theory of the “Quiet” Sun’s Radio Emission 511
Radio emission mechanism (511). Theory of the B-component
in the simplest model of the chromosphere and corona (513).
Interpretation of certain features in the distribution of the radio
brightness over the Sun’s disk on the basis of more complex
models of the corona and chromosphere (521). Construction of
a model of the solar atmosphere from radio data (531)
29. Origin of the Slowly Varying Component of the Sun’s Radio
Thermal nature of the S-component of the sporadic radio emission (538)
Bremsstrahlung mechanism of the local S-component sources above spots (542)
Magnetic-bremsstrahlung mechanism of slowly varying emission (551) Origin of radio emission of haloes and local sources above flocculi free of spots (563)
CHAPTER IX. THEORY OF THE SUN’S NON-THERMAL RADIO EMISSION 568
30. Generation of Continuum-type Sporadic Radio Emission 568
Origin of microwave bursts and certain phenomena accompanying them (569).
Origin of the enhanced radio emission connected with sunspots (579).
Mechanism of type IV radio emission (583)
31. Generation of Types I, II and III Bursts 589
Theory of type III bursts (590).
Mechanism of type II bursts (602)
Generation of type I bursts (606)
508 511 538 568 568 589 610
CHAPTER X. ORIGIN OF RADIO EMISSION OF THE PLANETS AND THE MOON 610
32. Hypotheses on the Mechanism of Jupiter’s Sporadic Radio Emission 610
The “thunderstorm” hypothesis (610).
Mechanism of plasma oscillations (612).
Plasma hypothesis of the origin of Jupiter’s radio emission when the planet’s magnetic field is taken into account (616)
33. Origin of the Continuous Radio Emission of Jupiter and Saturn 624
Radiation belts as the source of Jupiter’s decimetric radio emission (629).
Conditions of generation of Saturn’s radio emission (631)
34. Sources of Venus’s Radio Emission 638
The “ionospheric” model (639).
The “hot” surface model (645)
35. Theory of the Moon’s Radio Emission 651
Basic relations (651).
Interpretation of the results of observations of the Moon’s radio emission and the physical characteristics of its surface (657)