Fundamentals of Physics – Ivanov

In this post, we will see the book Fundamentals of Physics by B. N. Ivanov.

00ivanov-cover

About the book:

The book being of­fered by the author differs from other existing books on the subject in its nontraditional approach to the course of phys­ics. The principle underlying the preparation of this course can be summarized as follows:  “From atom to matter”.

What prompted the author to adopt this approach? In­deed, the creation of new materials with unusual mechani­cal, thermal, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties requires a microscopic approach to the problem and a clear understanding of the practical significance of the approach “from atom to matter”. This means that the scientists and industrial workers engaged in fields like physical materials science, nuclear and semiconductor engineering, laser

This book is intended for those who wish to acquire a deeper knowledge of physical phenomena. It can be used by students of physics and mathematical schools, as well as by those who have finished school and are engaged in self- education. A good deal of the material may be useful to teachers delivering lectures on various topics of physics.

This is not a textbook, but rather a helpbook that should be used in conjunction with the standard textbooks. Nor is the book intended for a light reading; you have to use a pen and paper, think, analyze, and even compute whenever it is necessary. We shall describe physics here in the way re­ searchers understand it today.

Physics essentially deals with the fundamental laws of nature. The progress being made at present in all branches of natural science is due, as a rule, to the introduction of physical concepts and techniques in them. This is besides the fact that a knowledge of physical sciences is essential for new industrial ventures lying at the root of technical progress. Physics is fast becoming an important element in the modern civilization.

The book was published by Mir in 1989 and was translated from the Russian by R. S. Wadhwa.

PDF | OCR | Bookmarked | 15.2 MB | 459 pp. | Cover | 300 dpi (upscaled to 600 dpi)

The Internet Archive link

The book is in print in India by CBS publishers.

Contents

Front Cover 1
Title Page 5
Preface 7
To The Reader 9
Content 10
Chapter 1. Unity of Nature 16 18
1.1. Hierarchy of Natural Objects 16 18
1.1.1. Elementary Particles 16 18
1.1.2. Nuclei 20 22
1.1.3. Atoms and Molecules 21 23
1.1.4. Macroscopic Bodies 22 24
1.1.5. Planets 23 25
1.1.6. Stars. Galaxies. Universe 25 27
1.2. Four Types of Fundamental Interactions 26 28
1.2.1. Bound Systems of Objects. Interactions 26 28
1.2.2. Gravitational Interactions 26 28
1.2.3. Electromagnetic Interactions 27 29
1.2.4. Strong (Nuclear) Interactions 27 29
1.2.5. Weak Interactions 27 29
1.2.6. Comparative Estimates for the Inten­sity of All Types of Interactions 29 31
1.2.7. Fields and Matter 29 31
1.3. Space and Time 30 32
1.3.1. Scales of Space and Time in Nature 30 32
1.3.2. Homogeneity of Space and Time 31 33
1.3.3. Free Bodies and Inertial Motion 31 33
1.3.4. Inertial Reference Frames. The Relativ­ity Principle 32 34
Chapter 2. Mechanics of a Material Particle 34 36
2.1. Coordinates, Velocity, Acceleration 34 36
2.2. Galilean Transformations 35 37
2.2.1. Absolute Nature of Dimensions and Time Intervals 36 38
2.2.2. Relative Nature of Velocities and the Law of Their Transformation 37 39
2.2.3. Absolute Nature of Accelerations 37 2.3. Law of Motion in Mechanics 37 41
2.4. Motion of a Material Particle in a Gravitation­al Field 39 41
2.5. Momentum. Law of Momentum Conservation 42 44
2.6. Law of Energy Conservation. Applications and Universal Nature of ConservationLaws 43 44
2.6.1. Law of Energy Conservation 43 45
2.6.2. Applications of Conservation Laws 46 48
2.6.3. Universal Nature of Conservation Laws. Angular Momentum 52 54
2.7. Ultimate Velocity. Mechanics of High-Energy Particles 54 56
2.7.1. Experiments on Accelerators and Ulti­mate Velocity 54 56
2.7.2. Lorentz Transformations 55 57
2.7.3. Relativistic Energy and Momentum 58 60
2.7.4. Role of Relativistic Constant c in Phys­ics 61 63
Chapter 3 Electromagnetic Field 63 65
3.1. Electric Charge 63 65
3.2. Method of Field Investigation 64 66
3.2.1. Equation of Motion of a Charge in a Field 64 66
3.2.2. Laws of Field Transformation 64 66
3.3. Laws of Electromagnetic Field 66 68
3.3.1. New Objects and New Mathematics 66 68
3.3.2. First Field Equation. Relation Between Electric Field and Electric Charge 67 69
3.3.3. Second Field Equation. Absence of Magnetic Charges 68 69
3.3.4. Third Field Equation. Relation Be­ tween Current and “Something” with a Vortex Magnetic Field 68 70
3.3.5. Fourth Field Equation. Relation Be­tween a Varying Magnetic Field and a Vortex Electric Field 71 73
3.3.6. Additional Analysis of the Third Field Equation. Relation Between a Varying Electric Field and a Vortex Magnetic Field 72 74
3.3.7. Maxwell’s Field Equations 73 75
3.4. Constant Electric Field 74 76
3.4.1. Field of a Stationary Point Charge 74 76
3.4.2. Field of Charges Distributed over a Sphere, Line or Plane Surface 74 76
3.4.3. Electrostatic Energy of Charges. Field Potential 77 79
3.4.4. Field of a Dipole. Charge-Dipole and Dipole-Dipole Interactions 80 82
3.5. Constant Magnetic Field 82 84
3.5.1. Magnetic Field of a Direct Current 82 84
3.5.2. Magnetic Field of a Current Surface 82 84
3.5.3. Magnetic Moment and Its Relation with Mechanical (Angular) Momentum 83 85
3.6. Motion of Charges in a Field 85 87
3.6.1. Motion of a Charge in a Constant Uni­form Electric Field 85 87
3.6.2. Motion of a Charge in a Constant Uni­form Magnetic Field 86 88
3.6.3. Motion of a Charge in a Coulomb Field 86 88
3.7. Fields of Moving Charges. Emission 91 93
3.7.1. Field of a Uniformly Moving Charge 91 93
3.7.2. Emission by a Charge Moving with an Acceleration 95 97
3.7.3. Emission by a Charge Moving Uniformly in a Circle 98 99
3.8. Electromagnetic Waves 100 102
3.8.1. Some Properties of Radiation Fields 100 102
3.8.2. Travelling Waves 100 102
3.8.3. Emission of Electromagnetic Waves by Oscillating Charges. Energy and Mo­mentum of Waves 102 104
3.8.4. Free Oscillations of a Field. Standing Waves 104 106
3.9. Propagation of Light 106 108
3.9.1. Interference of Electromagnetic Waves 106 108
3.9.2. Diffraction of Electromagnetic Waves 107 109
3.9.3. Geometrical Optics 109 111
Chapter 4. Atomic Physics and Quantum Mechan­ics 112
4.1. Planetary Model of Atom 110 112
4.2. Experiments on Diffraction of Particles 110 112
4.3. The Uncertainty Relation 115 117
4.4. Probability Waves 117 119
4.4.1. Complex Numbers. Euler’s Formula 118 120
4.4.2. Complex Probability Waves. The Superposition Principle 119 121
4.4.3. Limiting Transition to Classical Me­chanics 121 123
4.5. Electron in an Atom 123 125
4.5.1. Energy and Its Quantization 123 125
4.5.2. Angular Momentum and Its Quanti­zation 128 130
4.5.3. Probability Amplitudes and Quan­tum Numbers 130 132
4.6. Many-Electron Atom 132 134
4.6.1. Spin of an Electron 132 134
4.6.2. Systems of Identical Particles. Quan­tum Statistics 134 136
4.6.3. Atomic Quantum States 137 139
4.7. Quantization of Atomic Radiation 139 141
4.7.1. Quantum Transitions. Line Spectra 139 141
4.7.2. Photon. The Concept of Parity. Selec­tion Rules 140 142
4.8. Photon-Electron Interaction. The Photoelec­tric Effect. The Compton Effect 146 148
4.9. Simultaneous Measurement of Quantities and the Concept of the Complete Set of Meas­urable Quantities 150 152
4.10. Molecules 151 153
Chapter 5. Macroscopic Bodies as Aggregates of Particles. Thermal Phenomena 155 157
5.1. The Basic Problem of Statistical Physics 155 157
5.2. Macroscopic Quantities. Fluctuations 157 159
5.3. Statistical Analysis of the Gas Model 159 161
5.3.1. Computer Experiments 159 161
5.3.2. Reversibility of Microscopic Processes in Time and Irreversibility of Macro­scopic Processes 160 162
5.4. Entropy 161 163
5.5. Temperature 162 164
5.6. Equilibrium Distribution of Particles in a Body 167 169
5.7. Thermodynamic Relations 172 174
5.8. Ideal Gas 176 178
5.8.1. Matter and Its States 176 178
5.8.2. Classical and Quantum Ideal Gases 176 178
5.8.3. Equation of State for an Ideal Gas 178 180
5.8.4. Heat Capacity of an Ideal Gas 181 183
5.8.5. Reversible Thermal Processes 184 186
5.9. Statistics and Thermodynamics of Radiation 188 190
5.10. Crystals 194 196
5.10.1. Crystal Lattice 194 196
5.10.2. Types of Lattice Bonds 195 197
5.10.3. Mechanical Properties of Crystals 196 198
5.10.4. Electron Energy Spectra of Crystals 204 206
5.10.5. Lattice Heat Capacity 206 206
5.10.6. Electron Gas in Metals 213 215
5.11. Phase Transitions 218 220
Chapter 6. Macroscopic Motion of Media. non­ Equilibrium Processes 225 227
6.1. Nonequilibrium States of Bodies 225 227
6.2. Macroscopic Motion 226 228
6.3. Equations of Hydrodynamics of an Ideal Liquid 228 230
6.3.1. Matter Conservation Law in Hydrody­namics 228 230
6.3.2. Equation of Motion in Hydrodynamics 231 233
6.4. Hydrodynamic Analysis of Problems on Viscous Flow, Heat Conduction, and Diffusion 233 235
6.4.1. Viscosity 233 235
6.4.2. Flow of a Viscous Liquid Through a Tube 235 237
6.4.3. Heat Conduction 237 239
6.4.4. Heat Transfer Between Two Walls 238 240
6.4.5. Diffusion. Dissolution of a Solid in a Liquid 240 242
6.5. Kinetic Coefficients in Gases and Their Connec­tion with the Molecular Parameters 242 244
6.5.1. The Concept of Mean Free Path of Molecules 243 245
6.5.2. Molecular Treatment of the Diffusion Process 246 248
6.5.3. Diffusion as a Random Motion of Par­ticles 248 250
6.5.4. Relations Between Kinetic Coefficients 251 253
6.6. Resistance to the Motion of Solids in a Liquid 252 254
6.6.1. Similitude Method. The Reynolds Num­ber 252 254
6.6.2. Drag at Low Velocities 254 256
6.6.3. Drag at High (Subsonic) Velocities 257 259
6.7. Instabilities in Hydrodynamics 259 261
6 7.1. Transition from Laminar to Turbulent Flows 259 261
6.7.2. Boundary Layer 260 262
6.7.3. Turbulent Viscosity and Thermal Diffusivity 262 264
6.7.4. Transition from Molecular to Convective Heat Transfer. Solar Granulation 263 265
6.8. Oscillations and Waves in a Liquid 266 268
6.8.1. Various Forms of Wave Motion 266 268
6.8.2. Wave Characteristics 267 269
6.8.3. Linear and Nonlinear Waves 269 271
6.8.4. Solitons and Other Nonlinear Effects 269 271
6.8.5. Highly Perturbed Media 270 272
6.8.6. Oscillations of a Charged Drop and the Fission of Heavy Nuclei 271 273
6.9. Macroscopic Motion of Compressible Media 274 276
6.9.1. Generalized Form of the Bernoulli Equa­tion 274 276
6.9.2. Compressibility Criterion for a Medium and the Velocity of Sound 275 277
6.9.3. Flow in a Tube with a Varying Cross Section 276 278
6.9.4. Laval Nozzle 277 279
6.10. Shock Waves 278 280
6.10.1. Propagation of Perturbations in a Com­pressible Gas Flow 278 280
6.10.2. General Relations for a Shock Wave 281 283
6.10.3. Shock Waves in an Ideal Gas 285 287
6.10.4. The Problem on a High-Intensity Explo­sion in the Atmosphere 289 291
6.11. Hydrodynamic Cumulative Effects 290 292
6.11.1. Cumulative Jets 291 293
6.11.2. Bubble Collapse in a Liquid 296 298
6.11.3. Converging Spherical and Cylindrical Shock Waves 297 299
6.11.4. The Role of Instabilities in Suppress­ing Cumulation 297 299
6.11.5. Emergence of a Shock Wave on the Surface of a Star 298 300
6.12. Cavitation in a Liquid 299 301
6.13. Highly Rarefied Gases 301 303
6.14. Macroscopic Quantum Effects in a Liquid 304 306
6.15. Generalizations of Hydrodynamics 307 309
Chapter 7. Electromagnetic Fields in Media. Electrical, Magnetic, and Optical Properties of Substances 309 311
7.1. Superconductivity 309 311
7.2. Electrical Conductivity of Metals 310 312
7.3. Direct Current 315 317
7.4. Dielectric Conductance 319 321
7.4.1. Electrons and Holes. Exciton States 319 321
7.4.2. Semiconductors 320 322
7.5. Electric Fields in Matter 322 324
7.5.1. Field Fluctuations in a Substance 322 324
7.5.2. Electrostatic Fields in Metals 324 326
7.5.3. Electrostatic Fields in Insulators. Polar­ization of a Substance 325 327
7.6. A Substance in a Magnetic Field 330 332
7.6.1. Diamagnetic Effect 330 332
7.6.2. Paramagnets. Orientation Magnetization 333 335
7.6.3. Spontaneous Magnetization. Ferromag­netism 335 337
7.6.4. Magnetic Properties of Superconductors. Quantization of Large-Scale Magnetic Flux 338 340
7.7. Alternating Currents and Electromagnetic Waves in a Medium. Optical Properties of Media 342 344
7.7.1. A.C. Fields and a Substance 342 344
7.7.2. Induced EMF 343 345
7.7.3. A.C. Circuits. Solutions of Differential Equations 344 346
7.7.4. Generation of Electromagnetic Waves 353 355
7.7.5. Some Laws of Optics and the Velocity of Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves in a Medium. Reflection and Refrac­tion of Waves 355 357
7.7.6. Refractive Index of Insulators. Disper­sion and Absorption of Light 361 363
7.7.7. Refractive Index of Metals. Skin Effect. Transparency of Metals to Hard Radia­tion 364 366
7.7.8. Nonlinear Optics Effects 365 367
7.7.9. Lasers 369 371
Chapter 8. Plasma 373 375
8.1. General Remarks 373 375
8.2. Quantum Effects in Plasma. Tunneling of Nuclei Through a Potential Barrier 374 376
8.3. Relativistic Effects in Plasma. Mass Defect in Nuclear Fusion and Energy Liberated in the Process 379 381
8.4. Plasma Statistics. Equation of State for Plas­ma. Thermal Radiation of Plasma 380 382
8.5. Plasma Kinetics. Mobility of Ions and Its Relation with Diffusion. Electrical Conductivity of Plasma 384 386
8.6. Magnetohydrodynamics and Plasma Instabili­ties. Tokamaks 385 387
8.7. Oscillations and Waves in Plasma. Propagation of Radio Waves in the Ionosphere 388 390
Chapter 9. Stellar and Prestellar States Of Matter 392 394
9.1. State of Matter at Ultrahigh Temperatures and Densities 392 394
9.2. Stars as Gaseous Spheres 394 396
9.2.1. Calculation of Pressure and Temperature at the Centre of a Star 394 396
9.2.2. Temperature of the Surface and the Total Emissive Power of aStar 396 398
9.2.3. Energy Transfer in Stars 396 398
9.3. Sources of Stellar Energy 397 399
9.3.1. Analysis of Possible Sources of Stellar Energy 397 399
9.3.2. Nuclear Reactions of the Proton-Proton Cycle 399 401
9.4. White Dwarfs 401 403
9.4.1. Possible Evolution of Stars of the Type of the Sun 401 403
9.4.2. Density and Size of White Dwarfs 401 403
9.4.3. Limiting Mass of WhiteDwarfs 403 405
9.5. Superdense Neutron Stars 404 406
9.5.1. Size of Neutron Stars 404 406
9.5.2. Rotation and Magnetic Fields of Neutron Stars 405 407
9.5.3. Radio Emission by Pulsars 406 408
9.5.4. Internal Structure of Neutron Stars 406 408
9.5.5. Gravitational Effects in the Vicinity of a Neutron Star 409 411
9.6. Gravitation and Relativity 411 413
9.6.1. Equivalence Principle 411 413
9.6.2. Geometry and Time in Non-inertial Ref­erence Frames 412 414
9.6.3. Einstein’s Equations 413 415
9.7.Expansion of the Universe 413 415
9.7.1. Friedman’s Cosmological Solutions 413 415
9.7.2. Discovery of “Expansion” of the Uni­verse 415 417
9.7.3. Critical Density 416 418
9.8. Hot Universe 418 420
9.8.1. Discovery of Background Thermal Ra­diation 418 420
9.8.2. Charge-Asymmetric Model of Early Universe 419 421
9.8.3. Change in Density and Temperature of Prestellar Matter in the Process of Cosmological Expansion 421 423
9.8.4. State of Aggregation at Early Stages of Evolution of Hot Universe 422 424
9.9. Fusion of Elements in Stars 425 427
Concluding Remarks 432 434
Appendices 433 435
Subject Index 447 449

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I am The Mitr, The Friend
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13 Responses to Fundamentals of Physics – Ivanov

  1. pizzaleon says:

    Thank you very much for making these books public

  2. SM says:

    Mitr
    Lot of thanks to you for the book : Fundamentals of Physics by Ivanov
    Please help to get the following books also :
    1. Senior Physics 2 – Kikoin, Kikoin
    2. A Text Book of Elementary Physics, Vol-3 – Landsberg
    3. Questions and problems in General Physics – Savelyev
    4. Problems in School Physics – Savelyev
    5. Physics problems and questions – Gladkova & Landau
    6. Physics problems and questions – Goldfarb
    7. Collection of problems in General Physics – Sivukhin
    8. Selected Problems in Elementary Physics – Saraeva
    Regards
    SM

    • The Mitr says:

      unforutnately except for 2. I don’t have access to physical copies, so we will have to wait till someone else does it.

  3. SM says:

    The Mitr,
    Waiting for the book : Collected Problems in Physics by S. Kozel, E. Rashba, S. Slavatinskii
    SM

  4. Million of thanks to you ……. Honourable Sir ……….

  5. Juan says:

    I have the saraeva onde, Aldo have the kosel and irodov, but the First one os in portuguese and the other two are in spanish, as an editor publishes It here and people eventually Found those books shared on the internet. Do u want those 3?

    • The Mitr says:

      Can you post these links at the respective posts as comments? Please host the files on the Internet Archive.

      • Jota Mudo P says:

        I have all of them at my Google drive, if u want to I can upload it this evening, but is it really necessary?

        • The Mitr says:

          posting it to the internet archive increases the access to file for people who are not following this blog. it is a way to give more people to access to the resources.

  6. Jota Mudo P says:

    So, here they are: https://archive.org/details/SaraevaProblemasSelecionadosDeFsicaElementar2
    i ended up uploading those three together since it´s the first time I´m using IA. Also as i noted that you already have the irodov one, I added the Senior physics 2 from kikoin. Anyway, just don´t forget that:
    Saraeva – it`s on portuguese.
    Kósel and Seniour physics 2 are on spanish.
    Im sorry to share those versions instead of the english ones, but its what I have for now, and who knows if someonde volunteers to translate.

    • The Mitr says:

      Thanks, will add them as posts

      • Jota Mudo P says:

        So, i want to apologize as I’ve sent u the wrong book, “física 2” is in fact senior physics 1.
        But I’ve found “física 1,3 and 4” which are the other 3 books. A little note before downloading those 3:
        This entire collection is not from just one person, in fact there about 5-6 different authors, and some did one books and other’s another so it’s not physics from kikoin only. Anyway, here’s the IA link, all of them are in Spanish, that’s what I’m able to find (since I couldn’t find them on English unfortunately :/):
        https://archive.org/details/Fsica1A.V.PirishkinFREELIBROS.ORG_201805

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